Alfred A. Benitz Page last modified:
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1900 - First Entry
(Source: S.B. Pryor)

Ea. Los Palmares
Calchaquí, Santa Fé — 1900
(age: 40/41 years old)

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This day-book includes all of 1900.
To select a QUARTER, click:
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Alfred wrote most, if not all, of this day-book.

Employees: On May 26 he made a note of all his employees on hand that day (24) – including the Comisario!  They are listed in the same order as he did.

It is the first time he includes a “house-keeper” – having a house-keeper suggests his house had several (tiled floor?) rooms that needed cleaning; whereas when he first arrived (at Laguna Yacaré) the house he and Herman inhabited was most likely made of mud & straw with a dirt floor – much like the puestos for the workmen.

In the following list, we converted pesos 1900 to USD 2020 as follows: (1) Pesos to Dollars per gold prices in 1900, (2) Dollars 1900 to 2020 per US-CPI, (3) one peso in 1900 is then equivelent to U$D 14.34 in 2020).

Employee WageJob/titleUSD
Madero 20puestero287
Espinosa, Elias 15peón, Lomo Poi215
Gomez, M. (Martin) 40capataz, Lomo Poi574
Ojido, Damasio 20puestero Lomo Poi287
Domingo, L. (Ledesma) 20puestero287
Boy 8 115
Baldomero, Romero 36capataz, Los Palmares516
Domingo, S. (Sanchez) 18puestero Los Palmares258
Rafael (Barga) 18péon258
Tiburcio 18péon258
cook 8 115
Eustacio (indio) 18péon258
Benites 18péon258
Genin, Francisco 25chacrero359
Housekeeper 25 359
Cordoba 20péon287
Rodriguez 25péon, only?359
Rubio (Eduardo?) 25puestero359
Visco 18péon258
Paulino 25péon, only?359
Espinosa, Eulogio 18péon, de galpón258
Tomas 10temp. péon143
Baldino 25péon359
Gabino (Nuñez) 20puestero, Lomo Poi287
TOTAL 493per month7,070
Iribarne, Domingo 100contractor, fencer1,434
Comisario de Campo 20Chief, Rural Police287
TOTAL 613 8,790

Horse thefts by indians: Alfred had horse thefts (& resulting chases) in February & March.  In May they had reports of a marauding band to the west.

Herds (tropas) sent south: Feb. 2: Elias Ledesma led a herd of 595 steers to La CaliforniaApril 24: Machengo led a herd bought from Michelub, and sent south: 691 cows ($19 each), 152 steers ($25 each),

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Transcription Notes: The day-book has been transcribed as written, verbatim, without corrections to spelling or grammar.    Be aware that Alfred often left out possessive apostrophes (e.g. “Alfreds” should be “Alfred’s”) – we did not add the missing apostrophes.  Anything we have added is enclosed within [square brackets, with our comments in italics.]  (Transcribed by: Michael Mohr-Bell.)

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Reference pages

Written in English by Alfred & others, the day-book is full of Spanglish terms as well as many other terms unfamiliar to us today.  To assist with names (people & places), maps, measures, currencies, and Spanglish terminology, we have created a set of Reference pages.  The reference pages open in a separate tab / window making them available in parallel to the diary (i.e. this window).

Missing ñoqui in San Rafael.
[Transcription in progress by Michael Mohr-Bell.]

1900 - Qtr.1

[Author: Alfred A. Benitz]

January, 1900

January 1  — 1900 —

Had on part of rodeo de la Tapera for about 1800.– Dällers (3 yuntas) parted about 250 & not half-finished.  Told them must take their pastoreo away, and come & begin to part at estancia rodeo. – Say will come and part on the 3rd  Fearful hot day 100° and strong north wind.  Woodchoppers left for Monte Aguara to cut posts.  New Years gifts for the children.—

— 2 —

Fearful hot day, the hottest known here with strong north wind.  110° in shade.–

A recorrered as far as south alambrado,  xpect that Arrivani will get finished by tomorrow xcept small piece in estero which has water–   Told Madero to see Godoy about getting Godoy’s sheep on halves so as to put him as portero on south fence._ ,  No work today. ,  Dällers took their pastoreo to the Vara today, about 1000 head making 1450 mas o menos parted out from here so far.–  Miguel here for night, Sisto Martinez’ brother here for dinner on way from Miguel’s.–  Tonight south wind blowing–

— 3 —

Had on rodeo del estancia (a part of it)  Dällers gente (3 yuntas) parted out between 250 & 300–  Say can not come until fence along Calchaqui is finished as yesterday about 200 came back again; and that they have to take the cattle from the Cañas to Cald the Vara.  Told him (the son) to tell Don Nicolas to come tomorrow in the forenoon and arreglar for his cattle.  Was a stormy night but no rain.– Today cloudy, with some distant thunder & N.E. wind, but no rain.  Report Salado getting very low.  Hartenecks gente parted 115 novillos for matanza [for butchering?] from M. Fraire (El Olvido).

— January 4 / 1900 —

Stormy looking day but no rain.– Fixed up mower; also carts as Paulino and Romulo are to begin hauling.  Nicolas Däller was here; said would begin to part again tomorrow.  Did not seem to call to come to an arrangement to leave his cattle here.  Recorrered camp.–

— 5 —

Looked much like rain in forenoon, but in afternoon strong south wind began blowing.– Had on rodeo estancia (from north side) Däller parted about 65 animals.-  Escobar was here, wanted rodeo to part Leivas animals.—
Getting carts ready to do hauling.

— 6 —

Strong south wind in morning 90°, afternoon east.-  Had on north half of rodeo del Medio.  Däller parted out about 150.-  2 carts bro’t 515 varillas from Ewaldino’s (made by Feliciano.
Miguel here for night: had been parting Godoy’s mares out from the Vara & Angostura.‐
Domingo Arrivani came with his gente & carts from the South fence. -  Däller would not have Elias use corral at the Vara to part mares out.

— 7 —

Sunday.- Hot north wind 97° — Seca.
Had on south part of rodeo del Medio, Däller parted out more than 200 – The porteno Noriego was here this morning; wanted to see about camp.  Cart came at noon from Calchaqui bringing stores & correspondencia.– Dällers going to march to Media Luna with cattle, & part again on 9th  Dionisio Godoy here for night; came to see about his mares & sheep— D. Arrivani moved to gate going towards Fraire’s, with his gente to begin fencing.

— January 8 / 99 —

Very hot north wind 103°.  Ewaldino reports no more water in Palmar esteros.- Carts hauled 26 palms from Vargas tapera.-  Cut alfa in forenoon and in afternoon raked it with new rake.– Cleaned out well (quinta) in forenoon.  Tiburcio began work.

— 9 —

Had on part of rodeo de la tapera, and Däller parted out about 250 head of cattle.-  Capared some ageno bulls and desembichared.–
Fearful hot north wind 105° – looks stormy.-
Could not bring in the alfa in morning on a/c of wind.  Put 3 loads on stack.-
Godoy & M. Fraire here for breakfast.– Took Godoy’s flock on halves.  3 years.  made contract.  Pay Madero $20 per month to look after sheep, & gate & camp down south end.
Robson here, wants to look at Hartenecks camp to make arrangements revisar to see whether fit for poblaring.–

— 10 —

Had splendid rain last night which juntared some water.  Today was muggy & looks like more rain.-  Expect put an end to big seca & heat.  Report lots of cattle dying of thirst dying of in M. Dällers & Clusellas camp.-  Butchered cow.–
Valentin Bravos 3 carts & 24 bullocks turned up to do hauling posts from Monte Aguara to Costa Salado.-  Stops here all day.-  Robson here.

— 11 —

Drizzled a little at noon and strong south wind set in.  Robson, A. & Robson recorrered in monte Aruffos camp, as Robson is thinking of poblaring there.-  Rain had juntared some water but not much.  Valentin Tejera stops night (comisario).  Bravos 3 carts left for Monte Aguara taking 12 bullocks and 1 cow M to butcher, and a mule and horse.  Hauled 16 palms from Palmar.—

— Jan 12 / 900 —

Robson left also Tejera.-
Fine day.  Gente left to part at Robsons–
Hauled 23 palms–
Stuart Gordon came in evening – Mail came.  Miguel was here.  Butchered cow.–

— 13 —

Miguel came to see Gordon.–
Gordon stops night.–
Went over to Hartenecks.–
Gente parted 12 animals at Robsons.
Fine day.

— 14 —

Sunday.  G. Martin here, also Miguel.—
Gordon here.– Nothing going on.—

— 15 —

2 carts went to Calchaqui for wire etc.  A. & Gordon left for south part of camp to .  whether fence was made on proper line.-  Found it all right.  Had breakfast at Media Luna and Gordon went on to Mallas.  Camp looks well south & plenty of water yet for cattle.
Miguels cart came from Calchaqui, bringing mail & some encargos.  Men carpiando, & sleep at puestos to recoger tomorrow.–
Fine day.  South and East wind.  Cut rest of alfa.

— 16 —

Had on part rodeo Mistolar 1600 mm Dällers parted about 300.
Fine warm day.  NE wind
Raked together alfa & piled it up.

— 17 —

Hot day 95° N.E. wind & looks like a tormento.
Bro’t in alfa (part) broke pertigo of cart.-
Had on part of rodeo del Tapera.  Daller parted out 407.
2 carts came back from Calchaquí bringing 44 q. wire, 10 pua, & torniquetes.–

— 18 —

Another hot N. windy days, drifting clouds & looks like a storm.-
Bro’t in rest of alfa and fixed up things.  A. was over at Monte Aguara and looked after carting & cutting of posts which goes on slowly.—
Go to Calchaqui tomorrow.–
Delivered 20 q. alambre & 8 pua to D. Arrivani.

— 20 —

A. came back just before midnight from Calchaqui.  Had gone to see L. Rodriguez about the 500 novillos he offered to “La California” @ $24.-  They are at J.M. Seballos estancia.-  No comission to pay.  Had fine rain yesterday morning and juntared lots of water in camp, especially towards Pencas, Tapera & Lomo Poi.  Nothing particular going on.  Carts had brought 440 varillas from Palmar and took them to fence.-

— 21 —

Sunday.  Nothing going on.  Fine warm sweaty day.  Miguel left in morning; goes to Cacique tomorrow.

— 22 —

Had on rodeo del estancia, Michelud’s, Dager’s, Escobar (M. Leivas) & Hartencks gente parted out.  Not many agenos.  In afternoon had on rodeo del potrero (2 of Micheluds.)   It was a hot day 95°  Butchered cow.  3 carts hauling posts to alambrado from costa.–  Don Pancho Martinez & Michelud here for night.

— 23 —

Had on rodeo del Medio about 5000 head & very parrida; neighbors parted until 8 AM.  Dallers not finish: they take off over 250 head.  A put the flag point of Palmar lake for fence.  It was a very hot day 95°  Strong NE wind.

— 24 —

Had on rodeo (in two) Mistolar about 2300 & apartadores parted out: Dällers took away about 250 & Michelud left with about 400.  Very hot day 95°,  Wind none, but points south.  Butchered cow.–

— January 25 / 1900 —

Had on rodeo dela Tapera, about 1500 head. Michelud parted about 200 head.  Dällers 100, & Hartenecks & Sevisas about 40.  Finished rodeo work for the present.  3 carts went to Calchaqui for wire, & provisions.
Fearful hot day, no air 100°.
Elias had come back from Seballos estancia where he had gone to revisar the novillado, said they would suit; are about 400 in one potrero, and 200 amongst cattle.  Would let us know about cows.  Agreed to part on Tuesday or Wednesday.  Pelado Rodriguez was to have come today & let us know about the cows.
A chap named Demetrio —— turned up wants work for some compañeros to cut posts for alambrado, or any other work.

— 26 —

Went over to Harteneck to part and help ‘recuento’ – parted about 15 of which 4 were bulls, and then counted 2663 “todo lo que piso”, but 3 or 400 had crossed into our camp from their south potrero.  Helped them pass over 300 about after brfast.  Very hot day 40° & looks stormy.  Killed capon.

— 27 —

Butchere cow. M   A. recorrered up Palmar to hurry indians up about making varillas.  It was a very hot day 98° and looks stormy–  Want rain again, as esteros are gradually getting dry.-  Salado also getting low again.

— 28 —

Sunday.  Miguel here for night on way to Calchaqui.  A also leaves in morning for Zeballos estancia.–
Very hot changeable weather, had slight drizzle in morning.
Workmen here, fencers, haulers etc.

February, 1900

[Author: Alfred]

— February 2 —

A came back from making troop at Zeballos estancia near San Martin.-  Parted out & delivered to Elias 595 novillos @ $24.-  They also gave 1 vaquilla for consuma.  Of this tropa about 200 were parted out from 2 rodeos and the rest from envernada.-  Elias takes his brother Camba, Chamorro, Tiburcio, Surdo, Benites, Corriente, & Machengo, and will hire 1 man more on road.-  Camps down there very dry & no grass.  Am rather afraid of the tropa.-  Gave Elias $100, & 35 for guia.-  Monday & Tuesday night slept at estancia San Juan (Zeballos) Wednesday at puesto Maturan, Thursday at Elias puesto.-
Here nothing especial had been going on.  4 more men came for alambrado, & post cutting goes on faster.-  Kalbumatter had been here to see about camp, and also wanted to buy stallion.-  Weather had been fearful hot and no sign of rain esteros gradually drying up.-  101° today..

— 3 —

Another fearful day.  Strong N wind 104°–
Writing nearly all day.
Butchered cow–
Looks stormy.  Want it badly as this weather will soon dry esteros up.–
Pedro Ortiz came-

— 4 —

Another fearful day.  Strong N wind 104°  Drying up esteros fast.-  Getting serious this seca.-  Sunday.  Nothing going on.  Go tomorrow to San Cristobal to make arrangements with Cia. for making jagueles.–

— February 9 / 1900. —

A. came back from San Cristobal at midnight.  had a fearful hot trip.  On the 7th the therm. registered 107° in the dining room pro tem (south east room in house-  1st night slept at Lucero, 2nd San Cristobel, 3rd on viage short sleep at noria Polvadero. 4th home.-  Made agreement with Mr Prevost that the Cia would take over 2 norias at end of contract at a valuation of not more than $3000 each.
Seca here getting very serious, & lots of cattle of Dayer about 600 mas o menos & about 300 of Miguels have come into camp.-  The alambrador Domingo Arrivani getting along slowly, stretching wire about half ways between laguna and potrero.  Miguel here for night, also a rezero who wants to sell novillados Jacinto Cermin from Margarita.  Cut some alfa yesterday, and got it in today.  Sent horse cart to Calchaqui to bring out stores, and also encargared well digger.-  Weather has changed and east wind blowing and looks like a rain.  Hope so as this is the greatest seca & heat ever known up here.  Piles of people sun struck in B.A.  The two carts had been hauling 717 varillas and two trips of wood.

— 10 —

Weather changed at day break and had a sprinkling in morning, but nothing to mention.  Am afraid after all these fearful north winds that if it does not rain hard just now the seca will continue.  Wind E & southerly variable.-  1 cart brought 8 palms & the other 447 varillas.-  Baldomero & gente recorrered in monte, nothing new even tracks.-  Ceferino Troderob & family came today.  He went on to Carmen and his family stops.  When he comes back he is going to help make jagueles.– -

— 11 —

Sunday.  A. counted posts from potrero gate to lake making 7330 meters from to gate at lake.  The carts came from Monte Aguara, having finished hauling posts (Valentin Bravos).  The cutter of posts (Juan Andres) also here.  It was a pleasant warm day south wind.-  J. Martin here for night.-  Butchered a novillo.-  Cart came from Calchaqui with stores.

— 12 —

Martin parted about 25 animals out from potrero.- But some got away costa arroya near fortin [likely Rio Salado river’s edge, near Fortín Union].  Gabino had fall from horse and was knocked silly.-  Peones haulen pulling posts across Salado.-  25 (about) got burned up in camp fire two days ago.  Valentin Bravos (3) carts left for Margarita.  He would not take anything for hauling: gave him $100 to pay wages anyhow.–  Also settled with Juan Andres; sold him toruno saino contramarca [a countermarked ½intact male bay] for $50 and paid him off.-  M. Fraire, and Buills from Tucuman were here in afternoon.–  Very hot day & looks like a tormento muggy & cloudy.–  Cut and raked alfa.

— 13 —

A was at Hartenecks; boring well there.  Cornelio Norrigo came in forenoon to see about digging wells for cattle.-  Showed him camp west side of lake north of fence.–
Stormy day, but no rain to speak of.  Slight drizzle; thundering tonight.  Hope will get rain to put end to seca.–

— 14 —

Baldomero went up to Morels to bring horse.  bro’t horse doradillo (potro stolen by indians) and entrepelado mare stolen by indians last August.-  Cornelio Noriego went as far as estero Tejas to see camp to poblar: had overo stole horse hooked by cierbo-
Melba and Pancho Martinez came in afternoon and stop night: Say that man at well can’t get water on a/c of sand.  Cornelio comes here on Monday to dig wells.-  At Morells also they are hard at work digging wells.–  Strong south wind full moon and no rain.–

— 15 —

Melba and Martinez left in morning early.  Finished cutting alfa and raked it.-  Baldomero and family went to Calchaqui with cart on a paseo.
Miguel was here this forenoon.
Butchered cow in afternoon-
Carts brought two loads of palms from Palmar.-
Strong south wind & looks cloudy but seca seems to be here to last.

— 16 —

Ceferino Trodevot came last night with a cart to take his family, which had been here the last 5 or 6 days, to the Carmen.  Hauled in alfa.–
East wind, seca.-
Nothing xtra going on.-

— 17 —

Camila Bergara came last night to see if any news of Robson. -  Recorrered in camp.  N.E. wind & looks stormy.-
Baldomero came back tonight. f Calchaqui.  Nothing going on.

— 18 —

Sunday.  Strong N wind and in afternoon began drizzling with lots of thunder but does not look as if we are going to have much rain.–  M Fraire was here.

— Feb 20 —

Peones went first thing in morning yesterday to butcher; about 1 hour after sunrise the alambrador who is camped about ½ league from potrero fence on north fence to lake, sent word that indians had cut fence and went out with robo.–  Alfredo & Baldomero immediately saddled up & went to see.
About 50 tracks went out evidently yeguarizo from Lomo Poi; the 2 followed them to infront of poblacion of Buli & Huber & then went there to get help.  No one was at home and about 11.30 a young man Fritche turned up.  He says he saw the indians 8 or 10 about 1½ A N.W of house but thought they were soldiers, immediately saddled up & went to 2nd laguna Cura where the other peones were & got Alberto Huber to help follow up.  Followed up to as far as some nogototales about 8 leagues from there N.W.–  Rained a bit in afternoon.-  No good to follow any more so encamped for night. no water.  This morning came back to B. & Huber’s poblacion punta laguna about 11.30 AM.  Came home in evening.– Seems the indians had made big area from Lomo Poi but left lots of animals behind as far as fence.  Gomez had come yesterday morning early to avisar.  The pozero came also yesterday morning early (Cornelio – Porteño with 6 men to make wells.-  Had rained here yesterday afternoon. More than up north.
The cart men brought two loads of palms yesterday.

— Feb. 21 / 00 —

Cornelio tried water at esterito south side of road east of Estancia rodeo.-  2nd well he dug found good water.
Rained about noon, a good shower but not enough to juntar water.-  M. Gomez from puesto Lomo Poi was here says the indians stole in area of Sunday night 6 horses & two tame mares besides the chucuras where also the dorodilla stallion went.  Nash’s cria of Gomez’ private property 18 mares & horses went, 1 of Miguel leaving about 30 of B stolen.  Will juntar the mares the day after tomorrow to see what is stolen, more or less.  Fine day & good for grass.  Weather still looks unsettled & hope will have more rain to put an end to this seca.

— 22 —

Fine cool day,  drizzly forenoon, growing weather.-  M Fraire was here this forenoon, leaves for Cacique tonight for a fortnight m/o sh-  Cornelio Noriego & 6 men began work at jaguel 6 x 3 mtres. @ $3. per day.-  Eustacio also worked there.  Carts hauled palms from here to there for calza etc.-  Italian Jose Caferati began work today making wire varillas.-  Baldomero and peones left with tropilla for Lomo Poi to juntar yeguada tomorrow. -  Valentin Tejira (Comisario de Campo) came in afternoon and stops night.– .

— 23 —

Went in morning early with Tejira and his soldado to Lomo Poi to recojida de yeguada,-  and to see what animals were missing.-  The indians had left when they went out about 50 tracks; well say they might have been 60.  Well of the ajenos they took 17 of Gomez, 3 of Guibert, 2 of Barga, 3 of Baldomero (2 mares 1 cria), 1 of Miguel, 1 of Elias (baya), total 27 agenos – say 10 of their montadas, = 37.–
 2 alasanes  B tamed by Ortiz.
 3 Colorado " saino (Tropilla Colorado nuevos--
 1 picaso  " montado Gomez --
  1 Caballo tropilla Rolon.  [written between lines]
 3 Overos  "  "   "
 1 Colorado "  "   "
 1 Saino  " pampa parca viejo
 1 oscuro  " Tropilla Gomez montadas puesto
 1 Yegua mansa        "  "
 1   "  "  estancia.
 1 mancaron oscuro
 1 cahudo dorodilla
 1   "   Colorado requemado
 1 potro rosillo que fue de Jose Hijinio.–
16 animales conocidos B
37 agenos (above)
53
27 B more or less not known.
92–   16 + 7 = 23 of B
Had rained very heavy down towards lower puesto and plenty of water there.–
Peste pretty bad down there, & Gomez skins about 2 per day.–  It seems the indians came through cañada in front of Waldinos (Campo Aruffo) on Sunday afternoon, cut Hartenecks north fence, & also in front of Mistolar puesto, gone straight down to below puesto Lomo Poi & then out same night.–
Cornelia had gone on digging well today and at about 4 P.M. he had got down to about 3.30 mters, lots of sand when one side caved in.-  Told him to leave it & tomorrow try another place.–
Warm muggy day.  Plenty of water south of tapera to puesto Lomo Poi.  Caferati making varillas.

— 24 —

Made varillas (wire) Italian Jose Caferati peon and Eustacio 1190.-  Tried 3 wells north of rodeo road & 2nd estero from Chacra.-  Found good water north side of estero.  Drizzled at noon & afternoon, so told pozeros would suspend work until later.  Paid them off $72.-
Finished north fence as far as potrero gate.-  Indian signs about still.

— 25 —

Sunday.  Carnival.  Elias Ledesma came back from down south from Tropa.  had good luck considering the tremendous seca.  Fine damp muggy day and grand for camp.-

— 26 —

Began breaking up camp for alfa, south of ensenada close to mogotal.-  Jose Caferati plowing with horses (2).-  Alambradores fixed end of north fence in laguna.-  It was a hot muggy day and barometer low.– Found one dead cow in Salado.–

— 27 —

Put in other two new horses into plow.—
Finished varillas 5½ days 1 man work to make 1200 varillas.-  Cost of wire No 9 Gal – here, 4 cts each ½ cts to make total 4½cts.  Butchered this morning.  Alambradores left in afternoon to close up estero on south fence.-  It was a warm muggy day & the wind changeable SE  Barometer low.

— 28 —

Carts (2) took 2nd trip palms down to Lomo Poi to agrandar corral.–  Breaking up camp. Recorrered camp. - Cow fell in well, cleaned it out.-  A. recorrered up in Palmar.  Robson here for night. Hot day looks rainy.–

March, 1900

— March 1 / —

Robson left.  Breaking up camp.
Cleared out chacra well.  Strong south wind rain seems to have gone.  New moon.-
Butchered cow.-  A goes to Calchaqui tomorrow.

— 4 —   Sunday

A came back from Calchaqui this morning; slept at Elias (pass) last night.  Could not get durmientes for calza, in Calchaqui so wrote to Stevens.  Stormy hot weather & changeable but no rain which is very necesary.  Butchered cow on 2nd.  Loaded up cart with 42 cow hides to send to Tomas Trapaga @ $6 a piece.
Men had passed about 200 posts across Salado.  Hauled 183 to house.  Ground getting dry for breaking up.

— 5 —

Had on rodeo de la tapera for Michelud.  They parted out about 100.-  Stormy morning & had a sharp shower at rodeo, but at house only a very slight one.  Cart took 26 posts to Lomo Poi for making corral.  Too bad does not rain any more.  At south end of camp any amount of rain & water, but north end very little.  Cool weather.-
Lots of cattle of Dällers in rodeo de la tapera.

— 6 —

Had on rodeo Mistolar about 2000 and Michelud parted out about 35.-   Parted out 18 old cows from rodeo and put in potrero to fatten.  Butchered cow from rodeo. .  Had sharp shower of rain at noon, but not enough to juntar water.–

— 8 —

A had gone yesterday to Lomo Poi so as to recorrer today as far as south fence.-  Domingo Arrivani had finished alambrar-ing the estero on south fence (850 metres) & putting on wire varillas; today (in afternoon) began to make tras corral at Lomo Poi.  Camp looking splendid down south end of camp and plenty of water.  Yeguariza very fat, and very small paricion; most mares seem to have malparrida.  Robson had come this afternoon and stops over.  Yesterday was very cool, but today was hot again.  Peones recorrered up north but found no cattle of ours; very little water up there.  Cart came from Calchaqui bringing plow, gate etc.-

— 9 —

Julian Sanchez & Corvolan came this morning to recorrer camp of Miguels.  A. & Robson went with them up to Palmar lake, west side.  Warm day again.  Peones reorriendo in camp etc.  Caferati came back from Calchaqui & plowed in afternoon finishing the 4 squares in 11 days, lost at least 1 day on account of laying out ground & breaking in two young horses.–

— 10 —

Robson left in morning. A was over at Hartenecks; made trade with Garcia to fence in costa Calchaqui at $700 per league of 5000 metres ñandubay & quebracho posts all through. Same as 18 pulgadas other fence.  We only giving him wire, torniquetes & varillas on line.-  Butchered cow in morning.-
Domingo Arivani came back at noon with gente from south end of camp; had worked 1½ days at corral at Lomo Poi.  He had arrived here Dec /12 to begin work & made 11,500 metres of fence.–  Garcia also here tonight to see about getting indians to cut posts.  Warm day (hot!) strong N wind & look like rain.

— 11 —

Sunday – Garcia the alambrador was here today, went to make trade with indians for cutting posts.  Sent the two carts of Pancho Martinez which we had since Dec / 12, back with Garcia.  Sent Garcia 8 oxen to work on fence with.-  Very hot day 98° – Looks stormy & barometer very low.  Mail came today.-

— 12 —

Had on rodeo (General) Estancia about 2000-  Dallers, Hartenecks, Friare’s parted.  in afternoon put on rodeo potrero & tamberos. Elias here for night.  Tormento missed again, & strong south wind blowing.  Looks like a big seca.  Lucky the Salado is high & is rising very fast.-  Domingo & his 3 peones alambradores , & Caferati making wire varillas, made twisted 1200.  also boring palm varillas.-

— 13 —

Had on rodeo del medio about 3000 this morning, same gente as yesterday parted out.  Fraire about 120 – 51 yesterday.  In afternoon had on rodeo Mistolar about 2000; Däller did not finish part as they had to take their aparte of about 600 away.  Hartenecks parted over 100.-  Strong South wind & looks like a seca again.-  Camp getting dry and esteros drying up fast.-  Caferate making holes in varillas.  Alambradores left & begin potrero fence.-

— 14 —

Had on rodeo ½ Tapera and same gente as yesterday parted.  Dällers parted about 320 mom   Fraire about 75.  Told Dallers to part tomorrow at Tapera Lomo Poi lecheras.-  Began cutting alfa.  Butchered old cow.-
Entregared 8 oxen back to Bravo & tomorrow will part 12 from Mistolar.-  Dionisio Godoy passed on way to Miguels.-  Caferati finished varillas.-

— 15 —

Salado high.
Baldomero and the peones went over to Martins to part out, also Alfredo.  A came back at noon and gente stopped for rodeo in afternoon, and go on to Lucero for rodeo tomorrow.  Carts hauling posts to fence (potrero) from Salado.  D. Arrivani pasting posts over Salado.-  D. Godoy stopping for night, also Alberto Huber from punta Laguna.-  It was a cool day. Dällers parted about 300 from Lomo Poi

— March 18 / 00 —

On morning of 16th Gabino recorredor of north fence brought news of fence being cut.  Immediately got pesebreros & rest of Colorado tropilla up, and started after them.  Alfredo, Godoy, Huber,& Eustacio from here.  had sent Eustacio to avisar Ewaldino and went to potrero to take along Arrivani & 3 peones.-
Had cut fence east of Codo, seemed only 5 or 6 tracks which went N. Westerly direction; followed them full lick gallop & trote until about 4 P.M.  When got to Mogotal towards Charrua saw ginete who cleared towards north, chased him over a league but he got away.  When got back towards Mogotes found 4 horses [Inserted above: 1 madrina M 3 mares M  ] in estero at water and the indians evidently 2 had escaped to camp, 1 on horse & 1 on foot.-  Stopped night at algarroba there.  Very hard day for horses as the heat was great & no water until night.  Next day (yesterday) came back slowly & got here late at night.  Horses seemed to have been taken from Micheluds camp.-  Found here Rodriguez (Pelado) & Sambin who had arrived the day we left.-  Rodriguez has Tom Morres cattle for sale 1500 al corte @ $13.50.-  Miguel Fraire was here, says Salado very low again up north, & his arm out of joint.-  Rodriguez, Lambri & Godoy left in morning.-  Baldomero had parted about 20 of our animals from Martins & Robsons.
Gave rodeo today to Dällers & Micheluds, the former parted out about 300 from rodeo Tapera again.-  Today Damasio Ojido sent wordthat Dällers cattle again are entering camp.-  As over 100 passed the Calchaqui last night.  Baldomero & peones left for Micheluds to part.-

— 19 —

Sent boy to Calchaqui with letters for juez & also to N. Däller protesting against the laters cattle invading this camp.  Took 14 rolls wire, 10 pua 20 torniquetes to potrero fence, had already there 10 torniquetes.  A. showed Garcia where to begin the Calchaqui fence, at end of Hartenecks north fence.-  Silvano Michelud sent for the horses we took from the indians as they belong to his peones.-

— 20 —

Rained a good deal last night and today, good soaking rain but did not juntar much water in camp.-  Baldomero and gente came back in afternoon from Micheluds parted 8 animals from rodeo Costa.  rodeos postponed until Friday on account of rain.-

— 21 —

Muggy morning but afternoon clear.-  Dispatched two ox carts for Calchaqui for maiz & wire.  Butchered old cow from potrero.  M. Fraire was here.  G. Martin here for night.  Mudding up peon house.

— 22 —

A bad with cold.-  Baldomero & peones left to part at Micheluds tomorrow & from there go to part at barra.  2 soldiers of Tijeira turned up.  Casimiro Gay was here for brfast, wants rodeo.  Told him would give rodeo on Tuesday 27th rodeo general for all neighbors.-  Splendid day.  Sent horse cart to Calchaqui for stores.-

— 23 —

Alf. & G Martin were down at Mistolar puesto.-  Carlos Berli & gente were here on way to Monte Aguara to reculutar.–
Cart came back with stores.  Elias here for night.  It was another fine day.-  Elias stops night with reculuta mares of Godoy on way to Miguel’s

— March 24 / 00 —

Butchered old cow in morning.  Caferati began making verillas.
Delivered old cow to Garcia who is alambranda costa Calchaqui.-
Strong N.E. wind.-

— 25 —

Sunday.  Strong N. wind and looks stormy tonight.  Very hot.  Carts came from Calchaqui bringing 16 bags maiz, 23 rolls wire, 10 pua, 20 atados torniquetes.  The other wire will come with carts of Harteneck as far as their estancia.-  D. Arrivani loaded up to take 10 rolls wire, 1 pua, 10 atados torniquetes & 1200 varillas alambre for fence in potrero Costa Salado–  B. Romero came back from Micheluds & La Barra Media Luna.  From Micheluds parted 6 cows (2 orechano calves) from Barra 1 cow with calf marked with San Cristobal mark, & 11 vacunas of Media Luna.  Also parted 8 yeguariza.  left 1 yegua colorada at La Barra because it did not have its cria (coloradito with it).

— 26 —

Nothing xtra going.  Bad day strong N wind.  Repuntared tamberaje to Salado.  Hope it will rain before tomorrow.  Cut rest of alfa & brought 52 rolls wire, 7 pua, & 100 torniquetes from Harteneck’s estancia where their carts had brought it to.  Butchered 2 capones from puesto.-  Caferati made varillas.

— 27 —

Had on rodeo de la Tapera and afterwards Mistolar.  Fraire, C.Gay, Berli. Michelud, Dayer, Robson, Martin, San Cristobal gente turned up.-  Dayers parted about 350 – others not many.  Fearful hot day.  Strong N.Wind.  Robson, Best, Berli, Fraire, C. Gay were here.  Want rain badly.

— 28 / —

Had on rodeo del Medio & Estancia in forenoon.  Dayers & Michelud left.  Dayer parted about 200 today.  In afternoon had on rodeo alone to pass Salado & potrero.  J Cappo parted out 7 of his guacho from potrero. C. Gay, C.Berli, Fraire here for night.-  It was a very hot day and looks stormy.  A. goes tomorrow to B.A. to Tillys wedding.-  Elias stops as encargado.

1900 - Qtr.2

[Author: Alfred A. Benitz]

April, 1900

A. came back from down south, also Mr Forrester who has come on a visit.

March 29 Thursday on way to Rosario
30 Friday  "  " " B.A.
31 Saturday B.A. wedding of Grime & Tilly
April 1 Sunday " "
2 Mon  " "
3 Tuesday trip to La California
4 Wednesday La Cal
5 Thursday  "  "
6 Friday   "  "
7 Sat   to Rosario
8  "  " Calchaqui
9 Los Palmares.-

Bought a carriage in B.A.-  Brought up $5000 to Calchaqui & deposited at Hartenecks to buy cattle.  Lauterio Rodriguez undertakes to deliver oxen here @ $36.- fuero de enbeca & disecho [excluding sickly & worn-out].—
Dry here, had no rain.-
Here every thing all right.-  Had parted at Hartenecks 9 animals, at M. Fraire 22 & at Morels 16 animals.-  Also parted 50 old cows of Dionisio Godoy & put them into potrero to fatten.  trade was $18.- apiece & ½ profits on selling.-
Domingo the alambrador finished potrero on the 6th.  The other alambrador getting on all right.-  Had counter marked a torito for C. Gay for one that died after lot sold him.  Weather very dry here and ony had one small shower on the 30th, and camps getting very dry.  Julian Sanchez beginning to move his cattle to Miguels old place.  Last night about 1000 locked in corral.  Miguel also sent about 200 head up to Cacique, of cattle he rec’d from Julian ‘a medios’.  Indians about.

— 10 —

A & Forrester were up at Alambrado costa Calchaqui.  Baldomero & peones passed over 200 posts Salado.-  Elias & two men deepened well at Ensenada.  Hot day & looks stormy.  Cisto Martinez here today looking for work.

— 11 —

Had on rodeo de la Tapera for Dällers who did not finish, but parted about 300.  Made trade with Silvano Michelud to buy about 800 head of cattle @ $21.  cows & novillos 2 yrs up.-  Parted about 15 old cows into potrero. Butchered capon and old cow.  Miguels cart came from Calchaqui with some of our things.-

— 12 —

Had on rodeo del Mistolar.  about 1500, Dayer parted about 50 animals.  Seca getting bad.  Robson came and stops night.  Good Friday tomorrow.

— 13 —

Good Friday.  Holiday.  M. Fraire was here, settled a/c’s with him.-  Pelado Rodriguez came at midnight.  agreed to send a man Sunday night to Urbamo Avalos to receive 40 oxen more or less at $35.00 and milk cows about 30 at $19.00.  Silvano Michelud sent word would not be able to deliver cattle until after the22nd.  Warm day dry and looks stormy.-

— 14 —

Balsomero went over to Miguels to part, found none, but 1 cow of D which had got out of potrero.  put some agenos into potrero.  A. & Forrester went over to Robsons where rodeo was on also.  Elia & peones went there but only found 1 rosillo vaquillona, which we left there.-
Cleaned place up.  Carts leave tomorrow for Calchaqui.  East wind, dusty.  Butchered cow.  Domingo Arrivani & 2 peones making varillas alambre.

— 15 —

Sunday.  Had on rodeo del potrero, and counted old cows of Godoys mark 46 - 4 had escaped.  Godoy & Miguel Fraire were here.  Bought the 50 cows outright @ $18.00 .  Areglared cuentas with Fraire & Godoy.  Sent Hilario Martinez to Calchaqui to receive oxen from Lauterio Rodriguez and pay for them through Hartencks.–  Julian Sanchez was here for breakfast: he passed with about 1000 head of cattle for Miguels old place (Martin’s tapera) 2nd troop.  A, & Forrester were up at Fraire’s this evening as in the morning he is leaving for Cacique with his cattle.  Stormy morning, north wind.

— 16 —

Domingo & 4 peones making varillas.  Caferati harrowing.  Elias dug pocito at tapera.-  Butchered cow & remendared corral.
A. & Forrester recorrered potrero fence & camp. Salado rising and pretty high already.-  Potreo Salado fence is as follows – from river to corner 1930 metres, 35 torniquetes from corner to Salado 4150 mts. 48 torniquetes.–
Fine day.  N.E. wind & getting more towards rain which is badly needed.

— April 17 / 1900 —

Men rocorrered camp and looked after corral in afternoon.  Hilario Martinez who went to receive Pelado Rodriguez oxen came back late last night and said they were no good and not fit to receive.  A. & Forrester were down at Elias, Damasio’s puesto.-
Very hot day and seca getting serious
Making varillas.

— 18 —

The 3 carts came back last night from Calchaqui bringing stores, encomiendas from B.A. and 40 bags of maiz.  Parted out all the chicaje from potrero, & marked 31 calves from the old cows marked them & turned them into camp.  Sisto Martinez was here.–
Another very hot day.  Strong north wind
Finished making varillas; two new men began work with Domingo Iribarne.—

— 19 —

Marked Frakes calves this morning 36 – some small ones left yet (about 5)  Entregared a res to Garcia the alambrador.  Iribarne with his gente passed the rest of the posts over the Salado.  The 3 carts came loaded with posts from Salado.-  Robson came tonight.
Very hot day.  N. wind.  Hilario Martinez made trade with Paulo Gonzalez to haul loads out from Calchaqui @ $10 & dormientos as far as Mistolar @ 35 cts each.

— 20 —

Butchered a toruno.-  A. & Forrester recorrered to Ewaldinos & Garcias at alambrado costa Calchaqui.  Silvano Michelud is here, & set day for 23 to make troop cows & novillos at his place.-  Sent Hilario Martinez to Calchaqui to see about Hartenecks oxen. (to buy)  The 3 carts took posts to Angostura.  Iribarne began fencing in new chacra.  Hot, sultry day 90° looks stormy.  Big seca, grass all getting dried up.  J. Benavidez with sandias for sale here.

— 21 —

Carts came back from Lomo Poi.
Baldomero & peon went down to Elias who marked his calves (45).
Cafferati harrowing.
Alambradores making chacra fence.
Very hot day but had nice shower of rain in afternoon which will freshen things up.

— 22 —

Sunday.-  Made trade with Caferati for him to take chacra on haves give him land broken up, house, 3 K meat per day, 1 K yerba 1K sugar per week, maiz, salt.-  Give him $25.00 per month for breaking up camp.  & he gives crops harvested, and are obliged to buy his share at Calachaqui valuations.  Promised to buy his tambera cattle @ 12 or $13 @ cash.-  Go in afternoon to sleep at Elias puesto on way to Micheluds to make tropa.  Had another fine rain in night, very hard towards costa Calchaqui.

— 24 —

Alfredo & Forrester came back from Micheluds where had made troop.  Parted from Silvano Michelud & 2 brotheres. 691 cows @ 19.00& 152 novillos @ $25.00 and 1 big novillo from Jose Michelud in xchange for an orechano calf from Lomo Poi.  Total 844 $16.929.  will get the money thru giro on bank on Santa Fé.-  Machengo & 11 men tak tropa (began yesterday). 1 man as far as Vara.  gave him vale $150. & $5.- Cash.-  Came back by Lomo Poi where Iribarne began today the divisorio fence at angostura.  2 carts of Paolo Gonzales bro’t 50 quintal alambre pua, 10 of oval wire, 4 bags alfa seed, as far as Mistolar.-
Cold clear weather.  South end of camp dry.  Harteneck & Melba had been here yesterday with coach & borrowed span of horses to go to Palmar lake  Carts took 100 posts to Lomo Poi angostura.–

— 25 —

Alfredo & gente went over to Hartenecks to give a hand at marking.  Marked about 3.
Paolo Gonzales carts had brought 50 rolls pua 10 rolls of 16/14 gal, 4 bags alfa seed, 2 buckets 3 marks from Calchaqui as far as Mistolar.  From there today sent 5 rolls pua, 5 16/14 to Iribarne at Divisorio fence.  & brought the rest to the estancia. Sent Forresters things to Calchaqui on pack horse. It was a fine day but looks rainy.-

— 26 —

Forrester left at 1 A.M. for Buenos Aires.-
Getting ready for marcacion tomorrow.-
Sent pua, and varillas to Jose Garcia on costa Calchaqui.-  It was a fine cloudy day.  Butcered novillo of Frakes mark (1st)

— 27 —

Had on rodeo Salado about 1000 head.  cattle in splendid condition
Parted out Ageno cows with orechano calves, & also calves too small to mark.  Had a good lock in & finished marking by 12 oclock.  Marked 261 calves (1 was tambera).
Sisto Martinez & two peones helped.  Victor Ojeda, Pedro Benividez, & 4 paisanos outsiders helped.-  Butchered fat cow.  It was a pleasant warm day.

— 28 —

Had on north part of Estancia rodeo about 2000, & had a good lock in –. Same gente as yesterday worked.  Marked 502 calves.-  Had parted good many too small ones out of rodeo.  Splendid calves, & left a lot without “caparing”.  Weather dizzled some & looks like a temporal tonight.–
5 yuntas worked.  Dallërs sent men to part out their cows and calves, about 7 calves.

— Apr 29 —

Sunday.  Temporal blowing, drizzled good last night & today, so there was no marking.-  Domingo the Alambrador came back with his gente; has finished the divisorio at angostura.  Used 24 torniquetes, 1760 mts fence, 4½ rolls of 16/14 wire, 5 rolls of pua, 524? varillas.  4½ days work.-  Julian Sanchez had left two tropillas of horses at Lomo Poi & was here on his way back.

— 30 —

Sent off two carts to Calchaqui for wire, as Paolo Gonzalez is not bringing any.
Butchered a novillo of Frakes.
1 cart brought 50 posts from Salado to chacra.  Iribarne with his gente working on new chacra fence.  Sent gente to puesto tonight to mark tomorrow at ensenada.  Fine day but east wind & clouds coming over again; very probably have more damp weather.

May, 1900

— May 1 —

Marked rodeo Mistolar today about 2500.  Had splendid lock in, best in last 10 years.  My idea, drove cattle very slowly in compact group and no drivers inside, not one escaped.-  Marked 627 calves of which one died.-  Same gente as last time worked. 5 yuntas.
Butchered fat cow at ensenada.-
Dayers did not send any gente to part.  We parted all the ageno cows with orechano calves out.-  Fine day, cloudy and a bit warm at noon.  Some varial in tras corral at ensenada.

— 2 —

Another hot muggy day.-  Marked rodeo Tapera about 2500 head.  Parted out first about 80 ageno cows with orechano calves.-  Had first rate lock in same as yesterday and none escaped.  Same gente as yesterday worked & also U.Gomez.-  Marked 619 calves.-
The 2 carts came back from Calchaqui bringing 50 coils wire, yerba, etc.
One of the cartmen worked at continuation of manga in corral but did not finish it. Francisco cross plowing.  Left cattle in for night.

— 3 —

Had on rodeo del Medio.  about 1500 & had a good enough lock in; might have been better but for Baldomero’s stupidity, about gates, etc.  Parted out about 50 small calves first & agenos con cria, and marked 278 calves.  Left cattle in for night.-  It was a warm day.  Sent 2 carts up to Garcia costa Calchaqui with 40 rolls of 9 Guanaco [brand] wire.  Daller sent his gente but his capataz only parted cows & calves into camp.

— 4 —

Had on rodeo Salado again & parted out cows & calves to mark.  Rodeo about 1000 head, parted out 113 calves & cows & marked them in corral, also 11 on rodeo, & 10 tambera calves making a total of 134 marked by noon.  Fine day, & nothing going on in afternoon. Butchered a cow.

— 5 —

Had on rodeo del Estancia (en dos) 3000 and 1000 and parted out 267 calves with their mothers & marked them in corral.  Practically finished the marcacion.  Julian Sanchez of Union was here, also Anastacio Aguiar who brought correspondencia from Calchaqui.  Fine day & generally had good luck in this years marcacion, not a very good marcacion in numbers but quality very good, & left about ½ the machos for padres to re’elect later on.-  Vicente Puyal here to night with tropita of about 100 toritos 1½ yrs. from Cacique (Godoys). -

— May 6 / 00 —

Sunday.  Puyol & his tropita left.-
Had on rodeo del potrero & parted out to put into south potrero 44 cows D of Godoys mark to fatten to butcher.  7 old cows of our mark, & 1 rengo novillo.  1 of Godoys cows we had already by Garcia butchered, & 1 is supposed to be down in potrero already making 46, so there are 4 missing as we had bought 50 from him.  Gomez took animals down to south potrero also horses which we had working at marcacion.  Nothing special going on.-  Fine day.  Set fair. Barm.

— 7 —

Also fixed up the sheep at Mistolar (viz book)
Ox cart went to Calchaqui to bring out trap which is in from from Calch Drysdales also a few stores.-  Marked calves at Mistolar 51 tamberos 4 arreras At puesto Damasio also 34 tamberos and 4 arreras.  Micheluds gente also passed with about 20 animals de reculuta from other side of Salado.  Don Dionisio Godoy & his peones also came from Cacique.  Warm day, cloudy.—
Fetched in 2 loads of alfa in afternoon.-  Gente went on to Lomo Poi to work mares there. -

— 8 —

Butchered old cow.  Bro’t D.Godoys mares from potrero about 65 & marked his colts (16) .  He leaves his mares here, to sell
Bro’t in alfa, & raked, Caferati cross plowed in afternoon.-  Nothing goin.  Eulalia getting ready to get kid.  Looks very much like if we would have spell of wet weather as it is cloudy & hot & N.E. wind has been blowing for a good many days.—
A. goes to Lomo Poi tomorrow to work among mares.

— 11 —

A came back with gente from Lomo Poi marked the potrillos.  105 total.-
Put into potrero 546 yeguas chucaras and madrinas.  Of which 105 recien marcados.  130 machos, & 311 tosados & madrinas.  No animals got broke.  Sisto Martinez & Elias Ledesma each took a potro to tame & race July 9.-  Gave Don Sisto a potrita de la yerra (picasito. barroso) .  Cart had brought coche in boxes (2) & few stores.-  From Lomo Poi brought cerda and 13 hides.-  Iribarne today finished alambrado of chacra.–  Strong N. wind last 3 days & looks like rain.

— 12 —

A recorrered fence Garcia is making up to his ranchada close to corralito at Ewaldinos old puesto, just about 2 leagues from south end.  Cafferati began harrowing after 2nd plowing.  Got in rest of Alfa.  Iribarne & 2 peones went to cut orkones for rancho chacrarero etc.  Butchered novillo of Frakes.  Strong North wind, & looks very stormy.  Hot bad sort of a day.  The 3 cartmen taking a rest.–

— 13 —

Sunday.  Strong North wind and very warm, tonight south wind set in and looks like a temporal.  Getting horse cart ready for Calchaqui in morning.  Sent 1 bundle of 12 cierbo, 2 pig, 2 carpincho skins to Nogues to get tanned.
Also another bundle to H. Macintosh to get tanned composed of 5 lion 9 aguara, 8 gato onza, 2 coati, 1 gama, 1 guasuncho, 1 small oso.-  Report 7 indians had passed into Micheluds camp.-  Had noticio of 7 indians entering camp of Michelud thro camp of N. Dayer.  Sent word to Lomo Poi.-

— 14 —

Gente were out last night to watch for indians; no signs.  Ox carts brought 18 orkones from Harteneck’s camp.  Franciso went with horse cart to Calchaqui to Calchaqui bringing out a few odds & ends.  Domingo & two peones cut orkones for chacreros house.  Caferati harrowing.  Parted out over at Hartenecks camp about 20 animals m.o less marked 2 calves. Strong N wind & looks stormy.

— 16 —

Yesterday

At sunrise yesterday peon from Lomo Poi came & brought word that Gomez had fight with indians at estero Medio Luna & took a robo from them evidently Godoys mares, the 2 cleared the portilla of divisorio fence into Estero Gde where they were joined by 5 more who evidently made Gomez clear back to his house, as he had finished his cartridges (9) .  Little after sunrise Gabino reported north fence cut about 10 squares from his gate, so immediately A, Iribarne, his two rubio peones & Tiburcio got the pesebreros (12) & sent word to Ewaldino to meet us at portillo to follow them up.  The track seemed about 20 or 25 but very hard to follow.  Ewaldino did not turn up & did not wait but followed up till we lost the track at estero gde NE of Julians house, found 2 horses left by them one of J. Sanchez & an overo azulejo.  took a N.N.W. direction and at 1.30 P.M. found the track again in front of Chanares going northerly.  Lost it again & went to Migotes estero where we met Ewaldino & Alberto & Fritche (visco) from punta laguna.  Some indians had been there but evidently cleared out.  Slept there and at 11 P.M saddled up & came back to punta laguna at 4.50 AM.  No use to follow any further as moon is full & indians would get too much ahead.  Got home by 1.30 P.M.  Baldomero & 2 peones had brought a tostado mare with 2 crias from other side of Hartenecks camp.
2 carts hauled palmas from jaguel we were going to make to house for chacrero.  Found Jorge Dayer here; went off later.  Elias also here & Julian Sanchez here for night.  Butchered a novillo (111) Fraks  Strong south wind & weather cool.

— 17 —

Sanchez left. Baldomero & 2 peones left to part at Land Co’ estancias costa Salado as they are giving rodeos General.  Iribarne & 3 peones working on Chacreros house.-  Caferati finished harrowing & began cross plowing (2nd time) for alfa.  3 carts hauled palms from Palmar.  Cold morning but no frost yet, wind N.E. wind.

— 18 —

Had news of U. Gomez of the roba on night of 14th says they stole 15 horses of ours.–

J. Sanchez 8  – 4 have since turned up at Mistolar & 1 left outside of fence.
Tiburcio 13  – 3 left so only could have been 11.
Corriente 2  
Romulo 1  
U Gomez 1  
Frakes 2  
Baldomero 1  
  26 Estancia
  15   Estancia
  41  
  7   of Julian & Tiburcio left
  34   robo so far known –

Gave orders (in Copy book) to send 1 peon down to Maderos & have the mares pastorendo down there.-  They also left 4 1 horses down there, & 2 horses & 1 mule at Mistolar.-  Elias brought up two torunos from paso. Butchered 1 in afternoon.
Iribarne & 3 peones working on house (Caferati’s).
Caferati went to Calchaqui.-
Genin cross plowing.-
3 carts hauled palms to house from jaguel & tejas etc from house.
Cloudy day NE wind and looks rainy.

— 19 —

The 2 peones of Gomez of Lomo Poi came & arreglared a/c’s as they would not rondar nights.-  Iribarne & 3 peones working at chacreros house still.-  Francisco plowing for alfa.-  Sent a cow up to Garcia costa Calchaqui.-  Fine cloudy day East wind.

— 20 —

Sunday.  Nothing going on.  Murky day and looks like rain.  Romulo back from tropa–  Sent peon Elias Espinoso back to Lomo Poi to take care of mares at Maderos puesto with Madero until danger is over.–

— 21 —

A recorrered up to Vara Calchaqui  Garcia has done 2 leagues 88 posts + 35 + 25 + 41 = 2 leagues 1890 mtres & has posts set up to 3 leagues – Suspicios tracks of 9 from estero Los Tejas towards monte (yesterday).  Making mud for Caferati’s house, also put estanbro for cocheria.-  The 3 carts brought rest (?) of posts from Salado which J. Andres had cut.  Nothing else going on. Cacique Mariano here for night.—

— 22 —

Elias & A. took canes & tried to find level of Salado with surrounding camp.  At codo this side of puesto potrero found the highest part of camp is 1.55 mt higher than level of water & lowest in banado, 59 mt higher than water level.  So would have to raise water up at least 59 c.m. to make it flow into camp.  At bend inside at big curlepi [euslepi?] south of paso found diference between water level & highest part of camp 1.22 mt.  Iribarne & 4 peones deepened well in forenoon & afternoon worked at Caferati’s house.-  The 3 carts left for Calchaqui in madrugada.  Baldomero & 2 peones came back, from parting at Land Co’s puestos –
Micheluds & Bello’s old camp & Los Muellos & Lucero   parted 8 from Lucero & 3 from Micheluds camp.  Marked 1 calf & 1 that evidently had lost its mark (rabon).–
News that indians had stolen the hachero’s horses up near Estero Los Tejas.  Xpect the indians tracks mentioned yesterday.-  Cloudy day.  The indians had left at Mistolar at entrado on the 14th
1 macho Saino SI
1 caballo " A5
1 “ gateado (lindo) T Sent them to South potrero

— 24 —

A & the peones went to South potrero yesterday to take count of the mares & see what the indians had stolen.  Counted 561 yeguariza & madrinas (without horses).  So only 10 horses yeguariza are missing, & horses.-
U. Gomez leaves at end of month.-  The fault was evidently he lost his head, as the indians chased him & he should have sent word.  & we could have stopped the indians on way out with robo.–
Now Madero keeps the mares down at his puesto until late & Elias Espinoso helps him.-  Iribarne & 3 peones worked at revocaring Caferati’s house.  Very cold day strong South wind.  Genin finished 3d plowing for alfa & began harrowing.-
Evidently a false alarm of indians stealing hacheros horses up near Barra,–  Mail came (yesterday) letter from Miguel (Cacique) saying soldiers (6th) took 12 horses of ours from indians. -

— 25 —

Feast day.-
Nothing going on.
Butchered novillo Jorge Villalba (finado) gave A.B.
Carts came from Calchaqui bringing 40 rolls of wire, torniquetes, tirantes for doors, axes 1 doz & handles etc. & Caferati’s things in one bullock & he in horse cart with his family.-&br /> Heavy frost (1st) cool day E wind.

— 26 —

Hard frost.  Cloudy day N.E. wind and drizzled a little in afternoon.  Baldomero & 3 peones & Baldino recorrered monte but could only find 1 cuadrillo of Julian’s & 2 animals of  B which they could not bring –
Iribarne & 3 peones made mud & began to revocar coach house.-
Francisco harrowing for alfa.-
Caferati & A made door for Caferati’s house –
Elias here for night.–
Two carts took 30 rolls wire 55 torniquetes to Garcia & bring back tejas.
Peones on hand. Madero 20, Elia Espinoso 15 Gomez 40 Damasio 20, Domingo L 20, Boy 8, Baldomero 36, Domingo S 18, Rafael 18, Tiburcio 18, cook 8, Eustacio 18, Benites 18, Genin 25, Housekeeper 25, Iribarne 100, Cordoba 20, Rodriguez 25, Rubio 25, Visco 18, Paulino 25, Eulogio Espinoso 18, Tomas 10, Baldino 25, Gabino 20. Total $593 per month. & Comisario campo $20.-  $613.

— May 27 / 00 —

Sunday:  Rain from about 2 AM until 7 & drizzle nearly all day.-  Caferati’s house suffered from south revoc [revoque] falling.–  Weather still bad & looks like a temporal.&ndash

— 28 —

Baldomero & 2 peones recorred up as far as estero Las Tejas.’  No cattle out.
Elias took Juliano Sanches sheep on halves.
Iribarne & 4 peones revocaring coach house, & began shed back of it.
Fine day. Splendid for camp.
Sent Domingo Ledesma to Las Cañas to see about their rodeo general.
Julian Sanchez here for night.
Felis Roman from M.Fraire’s Cacique passed here; says soldiers have 12 horses of ours at San Bernardo, taken from indians 60 leagues from Tucuru. Indians had lots of hides (horse) B
Too wet to harrow.

— 29 —

Weather misty & looked like more rain so went to work & sowed alfalfa.-  Planted about half, at rate of 30 K per squares. The whole piece is 415 mts by 150mt.-
The ground is fine and damp & if we get another shower on top it will sprout right aff.-  Butchered novillo of Frakes (hide to be cut.  Machengo came tonight late with 100 toros from La California (has not given his report yet.).  3 Carts went to get leña.

— 30 —

Rec’d the 100 bulls from Machengo cost $3,77 per head to bring them.-  Look rather triste might be effects of viaje.  1 looks ill.-
Had rain nearly all night, slowly drizzly sort of rain just the very thing for the alfa.-  Paid troperos off.-  Carts came with leña.  Settled a/c with U. Gomez of Lomo Poi.–

— May 31 / —

Cloudy day & in evening began raining again; rather a deal of damp weather.-
Set up carriage today. One of the meztizo bulls died today.-
Several ill, left 6 outside of corral on account of being triste.-
Sent 2 carts to Calchaqui this evening to fetch plow, bordalesas and stores.-
Fine weather for the freshly sown alfa.-
Candelario Ortiz went to take charge of Lomo Poi in place of U. Gomez who left today.-

June, 1900

— June 1 —

Another drizzly misty day.  Rather too much of a good thing.

4 fine bulls died today.  Pastoreared them across the Salado today, as grass is better over there and freshly burned, also thinking swim would do them good.  90 locked in corral tonight, rest (10) dead or sick.  D Iribarne & Rubio finished making 1500 varillas 2½ days work for 2 men,(13 men/ morn day) Made marco for Cocheria door.  Revocaring in afternoon.-

— 2 —

Drove the 82 bulls across the Salado again and left them there tonight.-  3 died tonight today & about 10 are sick yet.  Another beastly drizzly day.  Mail came from Calchaqui.-  Nothing xtra going on.  Revocaring Coach room.

— 3 —

Sunday.  Skinned 3 bulls today.-  Those on other side of Salado seem to be doing all right but 7 or 8 are triste.  Nothing going on.-  Another muggy day drizzly but sun set red so guess will clear up.  2 carts came from Calchaqui bringing plow, 3 bordalesas, 2 bags yerba, 2 bags flour soap, fideo etc.-  H.Martinez came back from Calchaqui.

— June 4 / 1900 —

Carts came last night from Calchaqui.  Baldomero & 3 peones went over to Martin’s for his rodeo general but on a/c of wet sate of camp it was not given.
A. & Hilario Martinez went over to Julian’s rodeo, but it also was not given for same reason.
Butchered an old cow & sent one up to Garcias at alambrado.-
4 fine bulls died on this side of Salado & 1 on other side; they look rather groggy.-  16 died so far.-
It was a foggy morning but a fine day at last.  N. Wind.-
Cleaning out brush from new chacra & fixing up gate of Coach house, Iribarne & 2 peones revocaring galponcito.

— 5 —

Fine day, but bit cloudy and looks like more rain.
One fine bull died today (this side).
Hilario Martinez recorrered down to Lomo Poi.  Baldomero & 3 peones went over to Martins to part tomorrow.-
Worked all day with F. Genin putting up puertas for cocheria.
Iribarne & 2 peones worked at revocaring galponcito and hauling earth for filling up.-
Caferati destroncando chacra.
Alfa coming up very nicely sown 8 days ago.

— 6 —

Baldomero came back from Martins bringing 4 animals of ours 8 of Fraires, 1 of Julians Sanchez 1 of Harteneck.  Reports Martins cattle apestado & delgado.
Hilario Martinez also parted at J.Sanchez 1 cow & calf of ours & 2 of Godoys.  H finished sowing alfalfa.  Caferati laid out land for plowing.  3 fine bulls died today but not cuereared yet.  Warm day & weather looks bad.  Elias here for night.–

— 7 —

5 fine bulls were cureared today (3 fr yesterday) .  Made a high “estaciadero” for hides a la Estancia del Saladero.–
Muggy – hot, damp day & looks like more rain.  Sent G.Gonzalez to Lomo Poi today to look after montarases, promised him a yegua D elegido if indians did not steal this moon.  Filling up in glaponcito. and looking after hides.  Moved bulls to quemado near isleta on other side of Salado.—
Hilario Martinez left for Calchaqui to get married & to go as puestero at Lomo Poi afterwards.–

— 8 —

Warm muggy day but fine for camp and for drying things up.
Iribarne & peon (Toledo left.) finished work.  He had fenced since Dec/20 the south boundary, Salado to Palmar, potrero fence, angostura fence, chacra fence in all 21,330 metres. & made chacreros house (1 room), fixed up coach house, & lean to galpon, estaciadero, etc.-
2 fine bulls died today (1 hide lost).–
Sent over for the 2 Remingtons Jorge Dayer lent us (1 long & 1 short).
Fencing done by Iribarne.-  South boundary 4060 mt. lake to Codo 3140.  in lake 100.  codo to gate (outside potrero) 4190 gate to Salado (W) 4150, gate to Salado (S) potrero 1930 angostura fence 1760.  Chacra fence 2000.  $ Total 21330 mts fence at working cost of 249% (less) see leger alambrado or at rate of $11.70 per 100 mts or $585. per league.-  with making varillas & hauling f Calchaqui.-  Just make of fence with wire, pua or torniquetes?–

— June 9 / 00 —

Had a tormento last night, tremendous wind & some rain.  Splendid day like spring.-  Skinned 3 fine bulls from other side-.  fixed cart, estaciadero etc.-  Caferati plowing.-

— 10 —

Sunday.  Fine day south wind & weather looks settled again.  A recorrered up as far as bara Calchaqui.-  Fence going ahead & ought to finish in about 12 days.  Lots of paisanos at Ewaldinos for fiesta San Antonio.  No bulls died today.-  Butchered old cow.-  Julian Sanchez here for night.

— 11 —

Splendid spring day. East wind.
Skinned 1 fine bull today.
Hilario Martinez came from Calchaqui today; got married on 9th bro’t mail & begins work as puestero at Lomo Poi.Bald
Baldomero & gente went down there to change horses & entregar yeguariza to Hilario.–
Sacked Rafael Varga as he said would not help look after maresthFixed up 2 wheeled cart for Lomo Poi, also water cart for MaderothF. Genin harrowing part of old alfalfa for resowing. & Caferati breaking up camp.

— 12 —

Sent 2 wheeled cart to Lomo Poi also water cart for Madero-
Skinned 1 fine bull today.-
Baldomero & gente came back from Potrero Sud bringing tropillo of young Colorados 10 + 1 madrina.
F. Genin & caferati same work as yesterday.
Splendid day.  East wind.  Zenobio cleaning up back.

— 13 —

San Antonio.  Gran fiesta at Ewaldinos last night and today.  Tried new trap today and junta of Rolon.  Bro’t up pig from potrero for fattening.  Same work as yesterday.-  One fine bull died today.  Reports of peste “La Yagga in Monte Aguara.  Another splendid spring day.  East wind.

— 14 —

Marked 14 calves B  in potrero. & 7 of Frakes.
One fine bull died today.—
A was over at Hartenecks estancia where they were contra marking 300 head of cattle.  Renner came back with A. on a paseo & went back in evening.
Ewaldino’s San Antonio visitors left again today.-
Strong NE wind & looks rainy.
F. Genin finished harrowing old alfa.—

— 15 —

A’s birthday.  Marked 8 calves at Ewaldinos.  Told Ewaldino to clear indians out who are stopping after fiesta San Antonio.-
3 fine bulls died (34 so far) serious!
Strong North wind very disagreeable & hot.-  looks very stormy and barometer low.-
3 carts went to Calchaqui to bring maiz & stores.-

— 16 —

Very warm sultry cloudy day,  Strong N wind in morning afternoon variable.
Butchered cow in morning.-
Bulls seem to be improving 61on other side of Salado (5 on this side).
Peones recorrered camp.-
Salado very high and nice.

— 17 —

Sunday.  Nothing going on.  Fine day Looked drizzly today, & South wind.-  Drove carriage.

— June May 18 / 1900 —

A recorrered down to Lomo Poi, and Damasio’s etc.-  Took res up to Garcia’s at Vara.  1 fine bull found dead this side.  hide spoilt.-  3 Carts came from Calchaqui bringing 46 bags of maiz, rice, macaroni, f Rosario cartriges carriage whip, cigars f Alfredo, & from home box of birthday presents from mother & Johnston grass seed from W.O.B.
Cold clear day South wind.

— 19 —

Butchered novillo of Frakes.-
Sent 8 oxen to J. Lamazon for alambraring in Monte Aguara.  Report fiebre Aftosa very bad at Martins.  Here also yesterday first cases are noted.
Looked rainy in morning with south wind, but fine afternoon with S.E wind.

— 20 —

Drove up to Ewaldinos puesto.-
Fine day and warm.
Planted strip of Johnston grass and in old chacra 25 x 300 yds.
Bulls all right.-
The Comisario Valentin Tejira & Escobar & 3 men turned up as had telegrams from San Crisobal that indians had been chased from there this way.-  No news of indians here.  Juan (indio) came back from looking after mares night time.-  been there about 12 days. Nothing going on

— 21 —

Peones & Tejiras men were out in camp last night but no indians turned up.-  Tejira & Alfredo were up at Julian Sanchez in carriage this morning.–
Tejira ill in afternoon.-  Nothing going on in afternoon.  Sent up to Garcia to finish fence at Vara Calchaqui 3 rolls of wire & 8 torniquetes.  Splendid day warm but looks changeable.-

— 22 —

Warm day.  N. wind, very cloudy in morning.  Tejira and company left in morning for Micheluds.-
Mail came.-
Bulls seem to be all right now.–
Julian Sanchez here for night.
Cleaning up back to plant trees.-
Butchered novillo marco Frakes.–
Cart brought 30 tejas from Palmar.–
Caferati breaking up camp.&ndsh;

— 23 —

Gente recorrered over in monte beyond the Calchaqui.  Bro’t in a cuadrilla animals. .  A recorrered fence as far as Barra.
Found Pancho Martinez, & alalmbrador here, Don Pancho stops night, he is rather alarmed about foot & mouth disease.-  Here several animals sick.-  Coldish day S Wind.

— 24 —

Sunday.  San Juan.  Fine day.  East wind.  Nothing going on.  Fine bulls seem all right only one being ill.-  35 died so far.

— 25 —

One fine bull found dead today.-
Butchered a toruno this morning.-
Sent a cow up to the men working tejas ½ for J. Villegas & ½ for Jose Manuel.– For every 250 tejas of each lot.–
A was over at Juan Martin’s.  peste Yaga [?] does not seem to do much harm, except delgazars the animals & makes them very lame (some) .  J. Sanchez here for night.–
Fine spring day NE.wind.-
Bro’t 3 loads of fire wood.-

— June 26 / 00 —

Alfredo received the alambrado from Jose Garcia / Costa Calchaqui (f old alambrado from Calchaqui to Guampita) up to barra Calchaqui 19265 mts. (15000 mts @ 14cts & 4265 @ .08 cts mt.  Had some repairs made & it seems pretty good.
Baldomero & gente bro’t bulls over from other side 61 & marked the orechano 27 so as to take them up to Palmar tomorrow.–
Ewaldino moved from his puesto up to La Barra so as not to disturb the cattle.-  Warm day N wind.-
A goes to Calchaqui tomorrow.-

— 29 —

A came back from Calchaqui in trap.-
Here nothing going on.  Foot & mouth disease not doing cattle much harm excepting to make them thin.  Just beginning to reach Calchaqui.-  Baldomero & gente went to Lomo Poi yesterday & parted 8 potros & 1 madrina to break in today.  Eulogio up in Palmar looking after the bulls which had sent up to tapera Varga.-
Weather looks rainy & would do good as water in camp drying up again.

— 30 —

Breaking in potros.  Ration day.  Nothing especial going.  Caferati breaking up camp ½ day with horses & &frac; day with oxen –
Very warm weather N. wind & looks rainy.-  Poisoned hide 106 (4 in estancia 110).

1900 - Qtr.3

[Author: Alfred A. Benitz]

July, 1900

— July 1 —

Sunday.  Butchered old cow.  Skinned 1 cow.-  Foot & mouth disease spreading rapidly among cattle which are getting thin. —

— 2 —

Sent cow up to Ewaldinos at Barra to butcher.   Warm Hot day N wind but at night south wind set in.   J .Sanchez was here.
Campiared 21 fine bulls west of lake in ………..

To be continued...


© Peter Benitz (Benitz Family)