Alfred A. Benitz Page last modified:

Mistolar & Los Palmares

Calchaquí, Santa Fé — 1892
(age: 33 years old)

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Alfred’s map & notes of
Los Palmares’ fence

13,450 meters
(Source: S.B. Pryor)

Fencing: In late January, 1892, Alfred reached an agreement with the Santa Fe Land Co. to rent Los Palmares from them for 5 years; he also obtained their permission to fence its northern boundary.  On February 24th he rode the proposed fence-line with Donkin, going west from Laguna del Palmar to Fortín Unión on the Rio Salado.  The fence posts (spaced 10 metres apart) were cut from trees on the camp; erecting the fence (13,450 metres) was delayed several months by rain, but was completed by December, 1892.


Transcription Notes: The day-book has been transcribed as written, without corrections to spelling or grammar; however, when in doubt we chose the most correct.  We standardised the date format, adding the month where missing (abbreviated to 3 letters).  Anything else we added or corrected is enclosed within [square brackets, with our comments in italics.]  (Transcribed by: Michael Mohr-Bell, 2012.)

Reference pages

Written in English by Alfred, Herman, Donkin, & others, the day-book is full of Spanglish terms as well as many other terms unfamiliar to us today.  To assist with names (people & places), maps, measures, currencies, and Spanglish terminology, we have created a set of Reference pages.  The reference pages open in a separate tab / window making them available in parallel to the diary (i.e. this window).

1892 - Qtr.1

[Click to download Q1 page images (3 mb PDF file)]

January, 1892

[Most likely author: Donkin]

---------- 1892 ----------
–– 1 –—

!!A Happy New Year to All!!
except the D__d Indians round about here

Peicho cutting Alfa  South end the guzanas got in & eating the leaves.  Looking to see what insects was killing the melons.  Also taking off the lady birds from the patatas.  Arranging periodicals.

Fine day southerly wind.

—– 2 Jan. –—

Peicho & myself went to puesto to fetch the cart.  Paolo had taken it to build his rancho at the “4 arboles”.  Brought in the Alfa on Juans carriage also Peicho went to the Monte & cut branches for the beans.  Found a lot of unripe water melons the rodeo side of the fence opened but not eatened, found out it was Juans children – general d _ w good hiding all round.

Fine day High S.E. wind.

January 3 ––—

Elia went to Calchaqui to look for a rancho for Dña Angela, who is ‘enceinte’.  Found 8 melons great rejoicing.

Very hot day.

Peicho left.

—–– 4 Jan. –—

Peicho left for Livi to bring back the mare also to call at Calchaqui on the way back for Alfred’s answer to my letter  Made butter for the first time.  Working in garden.  Juan enlarging his corral.  Any amount of melons.  Pepito brought in 10.

Very hot day

[Vertical in left margin.] Killed (Juan) old cow.

—–– 5 Jan. –—

Juan & his gente regulating his corral.  Pepito firing camp west side of the house.  Elia came over with letter from Alfred & also Dictionary.  Francisco the Paraguayan brought them also 15 head of cattle 9 cows 6.calves.  Which Alfred apparently promised him $1 a head he claimed the $1 for the calves told Elia to regulate with him as Alfred said nothing to me about it also told Elia not to pay $1 for the calves till Alfred came.

Fearful hot day heavy clouds from S coming up.

—–– 6 Jan. ––—

Juan & his gente finished corral earthing up the beans in the garden.  Peicho came back but no letter left the mare al Espin wasn’t the madrina but another.

Rained all night & greater part of the day.

January – 7 ––—

Peicho cleaning out dining-room & bedroom & redunging [? ] them also regulating cellar.  Made a mold for the bricks & planted 3 beds of beans.  Elia came with 2 Papers for Alfred from Todd  Juan went to the Palmar with carriage & brought back palms for his coral.

Warm day but pleasant

—–– 8 Jan. ––—

Peicho went to the algarroba monte to cut “horquetas” for the fence round garden wanted 26.  Cleaning up the garden & peach trees  Juan working at his corral  Indians stealing melons &c D – n them

Warm day but pleasant.

[Vertical in left margin.] Killed old cow.

—–– 9 Jan. ––—

Peicho went to the Algarrobal to finished cutting “horquetas” cut 27.  hauled them all to the road in afternoon he brought more branches for the beans.  Domingo came for melons for Puesto “all robbed in the night”  Cleaning round the pease & taking lady birds off the patatas

Very hot close day

—–– 10 Jan. ––—

Peicho making a trough to tan his carpincho skin in.  Domingo came over from the puesto paseando.

Hot day  Rained very heavily in the evening maved [? ] the Galpon

Also 2 Indians arrived with women & family from out side gave them leave to stop a day or so till their companeros arrived.

January – 11 ––—

Too wet to work  Wrote letters to Mrs. Benitz &c  One of the dogs bit the lion & lamed him very severely last night  All hands working at hide made about a lb of butter.  Rained on & off all day.

—–– 12 Jan. ––—

Pedro & Pancho arrived in the night bringing tropilla from South left them at the Puesto  Elia brought them over 10 mules 5 mares 6 Potros 4 Horses.  Left at Calchaqui tired 1 Toruno  Elia going to Calchaqui tomorrow so he left them here to descansar  The other peones of the tropa stopped at Calchaqui.  They also brought letter from Alfred  Sent Peicho to the Monte to cut a new fork for the water barrel  Juan saddled the picasso potro John gave him laid down exhausted also one of the mares chucked Mr. Calario  Serve him right “cruelty”.

Very close hot day  Tormenta S ri___ [wind?]

[Vertical in left margin.] Killed old cow (Juan).

—–– 13 Jan. ––—

Fixing fence round garden  Hacienda knocked some of the rails down  Pedro went to the Puesto to catch Elia.  Alfa looking bad from the guzanas.  Zaino horse came up with tropa  Kept going to the Palmar so tied him up.

Heavy rain all night & morning afternoon cloudy.

—–– 14 Jan. ––—

Peicho went & brought the sleigh for the water barrel  Putting up sticks for the beans.  also my mosquitero  Juan and his gente “domando”

Part of the cellar fell in  Hacienda all round the house all night from “mosquitos”  Gave Juan 10 Kilos Yerba.  New bicho eating the Pumpkins & Killing it.  What a  d—n country.  Warm day.  Mosquitos out.

—–– 15 Jan. ––—

Peicho fixing up new sleigh for the Barrel.  Rained heavily in the afternoon.  No work.  Meat went bad.  Cloudy morning.  Wet afternoon.

[Vertical in left margin.] Killed

—–– 16 Jan. ––—

Peicho & Indians bringing pumpkins to the house with Juan carriage  The Guzanas eaten all the leaves & the pumpkins themselves the furthest row – brought up about 250.  beastly shame  Very much de mosquitos.

Very close cloudy day rained in the afternoon.

—–– 17 Jan. ––—

Peicho & Pepito went leche iguana hunting.  In the afternoon the locust arrived from all quarters all gente out fifling [fighting?] them but no use saved a little maize & the sweet potatoes.  Elia came over with noticia that Alfred was coming.  he went to Espin to fetch a horse for him also sent Peicho to Calchaqui to bring back the cart.  Elia took away four potros  All the Indians from Puesto arrived & settled down with asking permission Paolo came over to settle his account told him to wait till Alfred came.

Warm day.  & Mosquitos.

[Vertical in left margin] Died Torito

 Dec  18 –– January

Elia & his gente (Paolo, Pancho) came over & “domared” some of the mules, mares & potros in the morning & afternoon.  Another manga of locust came & passed over but stopped to lunch finished off my garden of beans in ½ an hour during dinner Indians from the puesto left for Calchaqui  In shutting in at night one of the macho mules got away went towards puesto.

Warm day with Mosquitos

—–– 19 Jan. ––—

Elia stopped the night & domar’ed all the mules.  his gente came latter on for the mares – went before 12 no meat.  Cautivo & 3 men arrived paid in $1.50 owing to Alfred bought 50 cts of Salt.  went away in the afternoon.  Tostado horse of Alfred’s very lame from a kick from one of the mules.

Very hot day.  Mosquitos awfull.

[Vertical in left margin.] Killed (novillo negro).

—–– 20 Jan. ––—

Elia came over & domar’ed the mules & potros & afterwards took away the mules leaving the two tame ones.  Guzanas commencing on the other patch of pumpkins.  Curing Tostado horse.  Cleaning my clothes with the gall [? ].

Very close day.  Mosquitos.

—–– 21 Jan. ––—

Brought in pumpkins damaged by guzanas.  Lena for firewood.  Tostado very bad.  Collins capataz of Christobal came in the afternoon to see Alfred leaving Gillingham &c at Fort Union.  expected to meet Barrington stopped the night  Paolo from puesto came to settle his account couldn’t do it.

Hot dusty morning.  Rained heavily in evening.

—–– January 22 ––—

Peicho arrived with the cart stopped at the Puesto over night brought

3 Bags Yerba

2 Barrel of Biscuits

1 Bag of Sugar

1 Bag of Salt

1 Bag of Rice

23 Bultos for Sir Vincent Barrington

1 Trunk 1 box 1 Valise for Alfred

1 Demijuan

2 bots of Vinigger 1 lb pepper 1 tin of Oil

2 bags of Potatoes (Half rotten)

Cleaned out the stove room & put all in  Capataz of San Cristobal left early to join Mr. Gillingham at Fort Union.  Elia sent Andon over for yerba gave him a little that was left & also some salt.

Hauling Zapallo’s.

Peicho sick got horned by a bullock  Juan broke his pole hauling leña  Also a greyhound came by the Cart.

Fine day

—–– 23 Jan. ––—

Bringing up pumpkins to the house.  Juan & gente went to puesto parado rodeo there  Putting the potatoes in the sun to dry half rotten.  Fearful row in our kitchen Donna Juana found siesteando with Peicho fearful results old John pretty nearly killed her with the maize pounder.  “Such is the frailty of our nature”  Mule from puesto arrived with recado threw Domingo.  Pedro caught it & old John knocked it senseless.  must have fancied it was his old girl

Fine day.  Mosquitos in evening.

January 24th ––—

Sir Vincent Barrington and Alfred arrived late last night.  Alfred arranging everything Sir Vincent photographing the house.  The three of us went to the Palmar & took other photographs.  Elia came over.

Fine Day few Mosquitos.

[Vertical in left margin.] Killed.

—–– 25 Jan. ––—

Put the Estancia rodeo on Sir Vincent taking photographs of it  Peicho cutting alfa.  Juan hauling pumpkins to the shed.  Getting ready to go to San Cristobal.

Close hot day.

[Change of author to: Alfred.]

— 26 —

Did not start for San Cristobal on a/c of threatening weather.  Harrowed potatoe land.  Dust storm.

[no entries Jan.27 through Feb.1]

February, 1892

— Feb. 2 —

Butchered yesterday.  Alfred, Donkin and Pancho came back from San Cristobal this evening.  Sir Vincent went on.  Alfred took valuation of stock at San Cristobal – fee $100.00  Had fine weather.  In going down went by terraplen and slept at Collins and on way back slept at Villalbas and came by Playa Gde.  Made arrangements with Gillingham to lease camp for 5 years and fence in part of land.  Ewaldino and Juan Antonio here.  Peicho cut the alfa.  Butcher from Calchaqui (Hilario) parted 22 old cows at $18.00

— 3 Feb. —

Peicho bro’t in rest of alfa he cut, and harrowed and plowed potatoe land.  Peicho bro’t orkitos for fencing in potato land.  Gave Old Juan notice to quit in 15 days.  Cause – butchered 10 animals in 35 day, lying, general rowing.  Very hot day.

— 4 Feb. —

Sent Peicho in cart to Calchaqui to bring out remains of other cart.  Domingo of puesto goes with him.  Pancho finished harrowing potato land and digging holes to make fence round it.  Cabals apartador turned up at puesto – rodeo tomorrow.  Stormy night but little rain.

— 5 Feb. —

Had on both rodeos for Alegre – parted one novillo which he left.  Offered him $15.00 for it.  Put up part of fence round potatoe land.  Very hot day.  no rain to speak of last night.

— 6 Feb. —

Old Juan went to Calchaqui.  Pancho filled up cellar.  Arreglared with Eulogio Sanches to come and work with carts.  Hot day.

7 Feb.

Sunday.  Looked at place to make a bridge across Salado to haul wire from San Cristobal.  Peicho came back from Calchaquí with compostura of other cart, starch and bucket.  Old Juan also came back from Calchaqui (Elections at Calchaqui).

[Vertical in left margin.] !!Indians stole 16 horses at puesto.

— 8 Feb. —

Butchered an old cow.  Sent cart to Palmar and received 400 kilos algarroba seed from paisanos 260 + 140 [above numbers: Jose Manuel   Pedro] – also bro’t orketos and finished palm fence around potato land.  Storm blew past.

— 9 Feb. —

Put together 4 wheeled cart, and poisoned hides.  Arreglared with Old Juan to go to Palmar with family: pay him $25.00 per month, he uses his own horses, and give him 6 old mancs [mares?].  5 kilos meat per day & 5 kilos yerba per month & salt.  Maiz cuando hay [maiz when available].

— 10 Feb. —

Counted all the cattle today.  5581 marked and 2334 orechano.  a very rough count.  Indians seem to have stolen horses of puesto.  Told Elia to look tracks up tomorrow.  Hot day and looks stormy.

— 11 Feb. —

Had a nice shower of rain last night and today was murky and looks like more rain.  Nothing going on.

— 12 Feb. —

Another muggy day with odd sprinklings.  Bro’t two loads of firewood and did odd jobs.  Butchered old cow.  began to give old Juan rations 22 kilos meat – 4 days.

— 13 Feb. —

Planted bag of potatos back of house.  Dug well south of galpon seems good water.  Alfred looked for indian track up Calchaqui as far as lake; no signs.

— 14 Feb. —

Sunday.  Sent Elias to look for indian tracks down Calchaqui.  Hot dampish day.

— 15 Feb. —

New man Eulojio began work; he is boss of carting etc.  He, Peicho and Pancho cut some timber for making estantes of house (galpon).  Cleared out alfa of small house to make room for Eulogio & wife.  It was a rousing hot sweaty day.

— Feb. 16 – 1892.

Had on puesto rodeo to disembichar, not many to cure.  Carts (2) bro’t timber for estantes of galpon.  Eusebio Saavedra came to part cows .for Hilario tomorrow.  Sprinkling of rain and stormy.  Barvie sent a man recommended as capataz; told him would let him know if needfull.

— 17 Feb. —

Saavedra parted 15 old fat cows from Palmar rodeo, and locks in at puesto.  Carts went, cut and brought quebracho from in front of puesto.  Heavy storm last night but no wind.  News that indians also had stolen at Levis about same time as they stole the 17 horses from puesto Feb. 7. Butchered cow.

[Vertical in left margin.] Butcher parted cows.

— 18 Feb. —

Men put up part of estantes of galpon and then went with carts to bring up posts on other side of Calchaqui near puesto.  Jose Manuel brought large tiger skin, two lion and 1 ciervo.  Pd him.  Hot day.

— 19 Feb. —

Carts came back at noon from puesto with forty posts, oxen rather heated.  Men worked at estantes this evening.  Recorrered camp.  Chasqui from Calchaqui to say Bermudez had horses for sale.  don’t want any.  Very hot day.

— 20 Feb. —

Carts made a trip and got posts 40.  Recorrered camp south.  Nothing going on very hot.

— 21 Feb. —

Sunday.  Very hot nothing going on.  Peons saw baguales in Monte Aguara.

Feb 22 / 92

Had on rodeo, disembichared and butchered old cow.  Carts brought about 50 posts.  Very hot day.

— 23 Feb. —

Sent cart to cut and bring quebracho latas for ‘revocando’.  Had on puesto rodeo.  A. recorrered Palmar way.—  Tremendous rain this evening after a very hot day.  Got the paisanas to cut 50 to 70 palms to make trascorral [? ].  $8 per 100.

— 24 Feb. —

Made pisadero for revocando galpón and put up rest of estantes.  A. & Donkin took a turn along proposed fence from laguna to Salado.  Fine day, looks like more rain.  Fires north west.

— 25 Feb. —

Peones ‘revocando’ galpon.  A. and Donkin tried to cut canutillo by Palmar lake.  Hot sweaty day.  Overo indian man died of some peste.  Burned body.— 3 days sick.

— 26 Feb. —

Peones revocando and making mud.  Butchered old cow.  A. was at puesto brought mail.  Donkin cutting canutillo.

— 27 Feb. —

Peicho went with cart and received 466 kilos algarroba beans from paisanas.  Pd. them.  Eulojio cut timber for making pertico and yokes & afternoon went to Clachaqui.  Pancho made mud.  Rained about 3 hours today and afterwards freshened up.

[Change of author to: Donkin]

February 28th.

Alfred left for Calchaqui early.  No work Sunday.  Boys from the puesto came over to play carnival  Eulojio arrived from Calchaqui at night.  Fine day.

—–– 29th Feb. ––—

Eulogiio, Peicho & Pancho ‘revocaring’ galpon second hand finished it.  Donkin cutting canutillo in the morning.

Fine day.

March, 1892

—–– March 1st ––—

Eulojio, Peicho, Pancho, in the morning went to the monte to bring timber to make yugos – perticos &c & working on the same in the afternoon.  Donkin cutting canutillo.  Dr. Pedro Grand arrived to see Alfred.  Like his luck.  Gone.

Fine day.

[Vertical in left margin.] Juan came across 1 torito overo & ternerito dead hide lost.

—–– 2 Mar. ––—

Pedro Grand stopped all day.  Donkin cutting canutillo & stacking it.  Eulojio, Peicho, Pancho helped Juan to Carneado.  Pedro & Hicario parando Puesto rodeo in the morning & Estancia rodeo in the afternoon for the recero.  I don’t know how many (24) he took.  Eulojio, Peicho & Pancho working on pertico in the afternoon.  Came across horse (malacara) lanced by the Indians when they robbed the tropilla  Juan (Indian) came over with skins and bear & “gato onza” sold them to Dn Pedro for $4.  Gave Elia his rations 10 kilos.  Troup of “Baguales” seen near the pass (10).  Eulojio & gente after them no good tame horses Juan (Indian) & gente caught two on foot.

Hot day

[Vertical in left margin.] Killed old cow

March 3rd Mar. ––—

Dn Pedro & companero went home again left word that he had 2 novillos in his rodeo & knew of 3 in Domingo camp which he wishes to buy  Juan, Pedro, Eulojio Peicho went after the Baguales returned in the afternoon  Eulojio, Peicho, & Pancho fixing cart & pertico, Donkin stacking.  Donna Anita washerwoman arrived Fearful amount of Tavenas in camp.  Terrible Hot Day.

—–– 4th Mar. ––—

Eulojio, Peicho & Pancho working on yugo, & cart all day.

Received from old woman stopping with Juana 5½ arrobas of algarrobas which she juntar paid $1.65 .–

In the morning heavy black clouds which passed over leaving a fearful hot close afternoon with an insufferable amount of Tabanas & mosquitos.

—–– 5 Mar. ––—

Rained a good part of the morning Eulogio Peicho Pancho working on the yugos & cart Donkin went out and bagged 10 ducks.

Warm afternoon with Mosquitos.

[Change of author to: Alfred]

— 6 Mar. —

Sunday.  Alfredo came back from Costa way.  Been gone 8 days.  Calchaqui, San Pedro, Espin and Margarita.  Traded the big toruna overo Colorado, at Morcillas for overo horse, and at Margarita (rodeo Torres) traded two old cows & calves with C.Cappato for 3 horses to be sent by him to Yacaré:

1 tuviano negro, 1 petizo saino, 1 rosillo and bro’t one of the mules Unbranded!   Gomez was taming.  Bought at auction of Grants testamentaria.  1 cart $100.00 1 wheelbarrow 1.30, 109 bolts $11.00 .-

Rec’d contract from Gillingham.-

— 7 Mar. —

The two cart went to Palmar and brought 15 palms for corral.–  Had rodeo on at puesto.  Planted onions, cabbage, turnips, carrots, beets.  Fearful day, hot & sweaty.  Storm in evening, but only few drops.  Wrote to Gillingham about altering contract, and also to Sir Vincent.

— 8. Mar. —

Had on Palmar rodeo, and butchered novillo, & cut up hide for cojuntas etc.  Sent Pancho and Pepito with cart to Calchaqui to bring out other cart and etc.  Had a storm again and a little shower.  Peicho brought load of wood.  Old Juan making toldo to move to.  Maiz getting fit to be gathered.

— 9 Mar. —

Overcast and cold day.  A & D’n cut canutilla all afternoon.  Cart with Eulojio and Peicho got sticks for yokes etc.

—– 10 Mar. –—

Indian women began to pick maiz – 40 c per fanega.  Eulojio & Peicho made cojuntas, dorsales etc.  and yokes.  Cart came back from Calchaqui bringing, galletas, soap, potatoes, onions, new cart, whlbarrow etc.  Benavides and family moved to Toldos.  Cut some alfa.  A. got very bad cold.  Ezekiel and family came to work.  Peicho was also here looking for work.

Missing brands

11 Mar.'92
(left margin)

—– 11 Mar. –—

Young Bulle (Cesario) came with 49 novillos which he and Fred. Senuels trade for 49 yearling bulls; put on Palmar rodeo where he parted 22  novillos  bulls and the rest he will part at puesto.–  Ezekiel began work.  takes charge of camp work.  Took Buille & Perico on a paseo to Palmar lake.

— 12 Mar. —

Bulle parted 27 bulls (young) from puesto rodeo.  making 49 he took.  Elia goes to Calchaqui and gave him paper for certificate.  24 bulls for Bulle, and 25 for Sinueles.  Two carts went to Palmar and bro’t 18 long palms.  Berli, Stineman & young Wasser came at noon to tratar for bulls.  Told them would trade bulls in spring when new bulls come.  Say that they have about 22 very good novillos to trade.  Fine day.  He says Perico parted cow and last yrs calf out at Steinmans.  P. said nothing about it.

— 13 Mar. —

Sunday.  Nothing going on.  Berli & Co left at day break.  Fine warm day.

— 14 Mar. —

Killed a descuadrillado novillo for the hide to cut up, and butchered a novillo in the afternoon.  Carts bro’t rest of palmas cut. (19)

Cut alfalfa.  Warm day.

— 15 Mar. —

Bro’t 4 algarroba logs for tranqueras of corral. Bro’t in alfa into galpon.  Hot day.  Donkin cut alfalfa.

— 16 Mar. —

Cut more alfa.  Peicho and Pancho bro’t in four loads of maiz from field.  Cut up hide and made straps for carts etc.  Very hot day and looks like storm.

— 17 Mar. —

Got in rest of maiz 45 barrels altogether guess about 21 fanegas – paid for 15 fanegas at 40c for gathering.  Also bro’t in load of alfalfa before rain.  Drizzled bit today, but not much, another storm coming up from westward.

— 18 Mar. —

Began making tras corral this morning, but rained nearly all afternoon, but not enough to juntar water.

19 Mar.

Worked at corral all day.  Eulojio, Pancho, and Peicho.  – This evening there turned up from San Cristobal J.Anderson, Waddington, Bruce, King, Collins and peon, and stop a few days.  Fine cool day.

— 20 Mar. —

Sunday.  Mounted the “Ingleses” that came yesterday and tool them up Palmar and also showed them where fence was proposed to start off from lake.  Tonight a baile and general spree, especially by D........ Butchered a fat cow.  Fine day.  Sent off to Mrs. Agar some skins by Old Juan who goes to Calchaqui tomorrow.  1 tiger, 1 aguara, 5 lion, 1 gato onca.  Peones killed a large lion which had killed calf up in Palmar.

— 21 Mar. —

Visitors left again for San Cristobal rather fagged out after baile etc.  But guess had good time.  Eulojio, Pancho and Peicho worked at tras corral.  Men went to parar rodeo at puesto but did not as there was some mistake.

— 22 Mar. —

Same work as yesterday.  Old Juan bro’t mail, also news that indians were about a good deal towards Calchaqui.  (false news)  Cart (2 wheeled) broke axle near Calchaqui.  Elia had sent it in to bring out Doña Angela.  Paisanos came back from towards Tostado, had caught 3 baguales and two tigers.

—– 23 Mar. –—

Working again at corral.  Drizzly weather.  Hired Serapio zxcvbn adero at $18.00  begins work tomorrow when he goes with Elia to Espin to bring out the redomones.

—– 24 Mar. –—

Rained at siesta, hard, and looks like more rain.  Eskiel and Alfredo took a turn up to Union recorrienda on proposed fence.  Pancho sick.  Eulojio and Peicho working on gate posts of corral.

— 25 Mar. —

Had a tremendous rain last.  The esteros are all full of water and the Calchaqui rising.  More water about than for last two years.  Eulojio and Peicho making gate posts for corral.  Pancho sick.  Butchered novillo.

— 26 Mar. —

Another drizzly wet day.  Say that Calchaqui rising fast.  Same work as yesterday off and on.  Indians: Ewaldino, Juan & Jose Manuel & families went to Palmar to cut 1200 palm posts of 99 inches (11 qts.) at $5.00 per 100.  Nicolas Figueroa and 3 companions turned up from Las Jacanitas.  Santiago says Creciente of Salado is at 3 Quebrachos now.  Say that Winchester Black Bill stok is embargared at Las Jacanitas.  Comisario ----- Ortiz.

— 27 Mar. —

Another murky day, but no rain to speak of.  Calchaqui Palmar falling again.  Nothing going on.  Everything damp in house.

— 28 Mar. —

Cleared up a bit in afternoon.  Elia and old Serapio came back from Espin bringing the redomon tropilla and the 4 horses Alfredo traded recently.  Say tremendous lot of water every where, Laguna de Las Aves full and Calchaqui very high.  Nicolas & companions left again for Calchaqui.  Pepita and Pancho filling up round house.  Peicho finished gate posts.  Eulojio making ‘sarza’[zaya? ] for carts.  Lion killing calves up Palmar way.

— 29 Mar. —

Alfredo and Donkin took turn down to Paso Mistolar (very high) & had a swim.  Peicho bro’t load of leña.  Same work as yesterday.  Bro’t meat from puesto.  Warm clear day.

— 30 Mar. —

Heard a tremendous firing up in Palmar, thinking it was the choppers fighting the montarase [? ] went up to see what it was, when it turned out to be about 25 nutrieras from Reconquista under Cesar Carnelli and another Italian who stop here over night.  A tremendous rain set in at noon and continued until night.  Camp all below water.  Eulojio stopped work.  No good.

[Vertical in left margin.] Butchered cow and gave ½ to indians.

—– 31 Mar. –—

Gente stopped here all day.  Bialba & family came from Monte Aguara & want to stop.  Say tiger killed calf down Salado.

1892 - Qtr.2

[Click to download Q2 page images (2 mb PDF file)]

April, 1892

April .1.

Petizo Italiano left with paisanas to go up Salado.  & Cesar Carnelli left for puesto to go to Calchaqui with Eulojio who left with wife.  Doña Anita cooks now.  Doña Angela came up today – had row with Elia.  Also Ezekiel’s wife had row with Ez.  Looks rainy again.  Guess in for regular creciente.  Say Calchaqui very high now.  Cacique Valentin came to puesto.  Bought from Carnelli his stores he does not need any more viz: – Tab.hoja 9½ kilos 22.80 – 55 kilos Sal grueso $4.40 – Sugar 28 kilos $22.40 arroz 27 kilos 10.26 Yerba 48 kilos 37.44 Wooden matches 28 doz. 9.24 Alpargatas 19 pr – 19.00  4 Camisas 7.00  4 pants 7.00  22 pqts stearine candles 14.30 in all $153.80 – gave vale on Hilario Saavedro.  Butchered cow.

April 2 / 92

Pancho and Peicho filling up galpon.  Dña Angela went back to Elia.  Fine clear day.  Cacique Valentin & family came this afternoon.

— 3 Apr. —

Sunday.  Kicked black cook out.  No good.  Eusebio Saavedra came to part reses for Hilario.  Nothing going on.  Went up to paisanos cutting pasto.  Fine cool night, warm days.

— 4 Apr. —

Put on Palmar rodeo and marked 6 calves and 3 for Tregathen.  Butchered 26 novillos at $25.00 and 1 old cow at $20.00 – 14 of the  novillos were of Bulles mark Warm day.

— 5 Apr. —

Peicho and Donkin cut alfalfa.  Butchered a novillo.  Pancho put up tranquero of tras-corral.  Hot day.  Pedro went to Calchaqui.

[Vertical in left margin] Pampa cow of Tregathens died.

— 6 Apr. —

All hands put on rodeo at puesto and marked 6 calves of Donkin and 12 last years calfs of ours.  Cut alfa this afternoon and put up other tronquero of tras corral.  Warm day north wind, and looks rainy.

— 7 Apr. —

Donkin and Peicho cut alfa, and Pancho hauled in two loads this forenoon and afterwards fixed up fence to enlarge garden.  Hot murky day and looks like more rain.  Plenty of mosquitoes.—

— 8 Apr. —

Peicho and Pancho bro’t 12 palms for Tronquera.  Rec’d 1200 posts (palm) the indians cut @ 5.00 per 100.  There are about 100 over.  Had a little shower of rain last night, and a tremendous lot of mosquitos.  Indians came down from palmar on a/c of the mosquitos.- Murky day.-

— 9 Apr. —

Arreglared with the paisanos for the cutting posts.  They stop on here.  Butchered an old cow this evening.  Fixed tronqueras and bro’t up leña for marcacion.  Close day.  Tuviano cleared with cabresto towards Palmar.

— 10 Apr. —

Sunday.  Chased tuviano all round camp and at last caught him at puesto.- Lorenzo brought the mail he comes to work at marcacion with Damasio.  Hot day looks rainy.

— 11 Apr. —

Marked at puesto.  Parted out on rodeo and marked 381 in corral.  Damasio & Lorenzo worked: outsiders.  And the rest were Elia, Hacintha, Domingo, Tomas, Serapis, Ezekil, Peicho, Pancho, indios: Juan, Ewaldino, Pedro, Alcario, Romana, Bivalva, Juan Antonio boy.  As soon as finished had heavy rain which continues.  Juan (indio) got bad cut sole of foot.  About 50 calves got away in locking in.

— 12 Apr. —

Nothin going on.  Damp day & mosquitos.

— 13 Apr. —

Looked for lion that kills calves up in Palmar unsuccessfully.  Hot day.  Butchered novillo.  Bro’t up leña etc.

— 14 Apr. —

Marked again at puesto, parted out and marked in corral 188 calves, about 20 escaped.  Same gente as other day, more or less worked.  Plenty of mud in corral.  Hot day.

— 15 Apr. —

Hot forenoon and looked rainy but in afternoon south wind came up and cleared up.  No work today Good Friday but rest horses to mark again tomorrow.

— 16 Apr. —

Put on Palmar rodeo, about 6000 head came on and we run out [about ?] 800 calves very easily, but only locked in and marked 302 calves.  The paisanos not much good to drive cattle.  It was a cool pleasant day.  Butchered an old cow.

— 17 Apr. —

Sunday.  Nothing going on.  A. recorred up as far as mojon Salado.

— 18 Apr. —

Marked again.  Parted  about 325 calves  and marked 313 calves from Palmar rodeo.  Had a good lock in  and  made big cerca, & had 4 drivers best way! Serapis takes pack-mule and goes to Calchaqui to bring out more caña etc.  Strong north wind.  Butchered cow.

— 19 Apr. —

Elia Salteno came  back  last night late, and this morning Paolo and Eubio Entrekiano came to help mark.  It was a hot close day so only parted and marked 259 calves, a few escaped in shutting in.  Same gente more or less worked.  Butchered cow.

April 20/92

Elia Salteno left again for Espin paid him up to June 1.  Arreglared with Tomas & wife who leave puesto.  Nothing going on.  Cold weather & clear, guess will have dry time now.  Zerapio came back from Calchaqui bro’t demijohn caña, flour & comino for pasteles......

— 21 Apr. —

Had an indian alarm last night about 9 oclock the horses and mares near rodeo began clearing about so we went out and locked all the horses we could find in the corral, and this morning 3 mules and 5 mares [above line: & 2 horses from puesto] are missing besides 16 of the paisanos horses [above line: altogether 26].  Could find no tracks, [above line: (horses found afterwards)] but the paisanos look again tomorrow.  Cool afternoon hot morning.

— 22 Apr. —

Put on Palmar rodeo and parted and marked 327.  Not bad lock in.  Outsiders who worked Damasio, Lorenzo, Entre Rios Paolo, Zappato.  Romano found no tracks of indians yet.  Pleasant day.  Butchered fat cow (old).

— 23 Apr. —

Finished the Palmar rodeo, parted and marked 216 calves.  Good lock in.  Same gente as yesterday worked.  Had a shower of rain in afternoon.  Horses supposed to have lost found again back of esteros towards puesto.  Butchered cow.

24 Apr.

Sunday.  Had a storm and some rain last night, but today was a beautiful day.  Had pasteles end of marcacion.  Will finish up at puesto tomorrow.

— 25 Apr. —

Men went and put on  rain  rodeo at puesto but rain came on so could not mark.  Arreglared a/c with Damasio who leaves with Lorenzo.  Rained some and was a misty cloudy day.

— 26 Apr. —

Peicho and Pancho making mud for adobes for fire place.  A & Donkin were at puesto, mark again day after tomorrow weather permitting.  Warm day.  Outsiders left are Juan Zappato and Paolo.  Butchered cow.

— 27 Apr. —

Alfredo & Donkin went along line of proposed fence, lot of slush.  Peicho and Pancho making adobes.  Warm day.

— 28 Apr. —

Had rodeo at puesto and marked cows after parting them out – 82 and also marked tambera calves 32 at puesto.  Had mail by Lorenzo & wife who begin work.  It was a treacherous sort of day rain in sprinkles and some sun but looks like lots of rain.  Paolo & Zappato left.  Marking about finished except to do rodeos.

— 29

Rained hard nearly all day.  Guess fencing will be out of question this winter.  Nothing going on.


Had a tremendous rain last night & Calchaqui rising.  Looks rainy yet.  Peicho & Pancho bro’t load of leña.  Butchered fat cow.

May, 1892

May 1/92

Sunday.  Pepipta left.  Misty day.  Alegre turned up from La Blanca to look for stray cattle.  Tigers plmasant  killing again.

— 2 May —

Alegre stopped here all day.  Looked for a tiger that is killing calves at Chilcal.  Ewaldino killed it, a very large one on other side of river.  Sent Pancho and Zerapio to bring broken cart from Calchaqui, also the cargo from Santa Fe.  It was a warm pleasant day.

— 3 May —

More rain and looks like temporal.  Alegre here yet.  Ezekiel recorrered up to Rinconada Palmar.  No cattle tracks up that way.

— 4 May —

Strong southeast wind blowing & cold.  Butchered the white indians ox.  Alegre here still and tonight old Bernesconi came up from puesto.

— 5 May —

Had on Palmar rodeo and marked 54 calves on rodeo.  Drizzly & cold weather.  Alegre & comp. left for “La Blanca” again.

— 6 May —

Another murky day.  Cart came in afternoon from Calchaqui, but did not bring cargo from Santa Fé as it had not arrived only bro’t Cappats, bag yerba, bag maiz (Elia) 40 kilos rice, etc. - - -

Young Tremolliere came bro’t letter from M. Leiva asking me to contribute for expedition against indians. It was

— 7 May —

Another murky beastly day.- Men this afternoon fixed up garden & moved fence, and this afternoon pulled out maiz stalks.  Tremolliere still here.  Eduardo & wife began work.

— 8 May —

Sunday.  Nothing going on.  Tried fishing on Salado.  Lorenzo took 8 long palms to make corral at his puesto: cuatro arboles. – Murky day and no sun but mosquitos to make up.  Butchered cow.

— 9 May —

This forenoon finished pulling out maiz stalks.  Brought leña in afternoon.  Paisanos left for San Martin.  Ewaldino and parientes go to make 400 tiles at Palmar.  Started Eduardo at plowing for alfa.  Peicho desbarbando the adobes.  Robson turned up from down south to look at Mte Aguara camp for Dickinson.  Hot day and rains tonight.-

— 10 May —

Tremolliere left with the horse Robson brought.  Sent Pancho and Zerapio to puesto to cut & bring orkonones for making galpon.  Weather cleared up at last.

— 11 May —

Marked (finished) calves on puesto rodeo today 90 calves, making 2270 marked so far.  Only want the tamberas yet. – Robson sick (head).  It was a fine clear day.

— 12 May —

Alfred & Elia & Peicho left for Espin to mark the mares.  Pancho & Zarapio cutting orquetas.  Eduardo finish ploughing.  Gave Segunda for Ewaldino’s account.  16 Kls of meat.  1½ Bags of maize.  Fine day.

[Vertical in left margin] Killed old cow.

[Change of author]

— May 13th

Marking out and digging a place for new W.C. Rubio (Eduardo) regulating mud for the “Adobes”.  Peicho & Zarapio brought back 12 orjones for Galpon.  Hezequiel left on foot dog or fox eat the soga.

Fine day cloudy South.

— 14th May —

Putting brocal to W.C. faulting about 150 adobes also knocking down old one.  Hezequiel & Eduardo helping.  Zarapio & Pancho taking the bark off the horjones & also brought a cartload of leña.  Peicho arrived in the evening from Calchaqui bringing 1 bag of Biscuits, Soap, Tobacco, 1 Box & Robson pormanteau & correspondence.

Fine day with clouds rather heavy.

[Change of author to: Alfred]

— 15 May —

Sunday.  Alfredo came back from Espin with Elias Ledesma bringing the 5 colorados, potro alasan ruano, yegua mellada, & 2 picaso torunos, Marked in Espin 37 colts, 15 machas & 22 hembras.  Gave Hilario Saavedra certificate for 37 reses as the one Damasio took in got lost.  Also reglared with him & got p’d. in full.  Rivers high & Calchaqui seems rising.  Coldish nights.

— 16 May —

Peicho & Eduardo making adobes.  Pancho reglared orkones, & Zerapio worked W.C. etc.- Fine day.- Butchered cow.

— 17 May —

Put on puesto rodeo for butcher Hilario Saavedra.  He parted 16 (17) novillos (4 were of Bulles mark) at $25.00 and 14 (13) cows at $18.00 He promised to send out any letters from San Cristobal.  Pancho & Zerapio dug out patatas, 1 of 13 Hs, and 1 of 12 Hs.  Peicho & Eduardo working at adobes.  Donkin cut alfa.  Beautiful day.

— 18 May —

Making adobes & bro’t in patatas, about 80 arrobas.  Buried shoots for planting.   North wind.-

[Change of author]

— 19th May —

Went to the Palmar in the morning with Robson & Donkin.  Butcher sent out letters none from Cristobal getting ready to go tomorrow.  Butchered old cow.

North wind.

— 20th May —

Benitz, Robson & Pancho started for San Cristobal via Lorenzo’s puesto taking the Colorado tropillo & mule.  Peicho & Eduardo cleaning & standing up the bricks.

Warm day rather cloudy.

21st May

Peicho & Donkin finishing the W.C. putting brocal & seat etc.  Eduardo & Serapio went to get the cart from the other side of the Calchaqui.  Ezequiel & Zarapo in Camp.

 22nd May

Jacinto, Serapio & Elia arrived with oxen from Puesto.  Jacinto getting his tropa together.  Indian boy came as bongboyero to tropa.  They also took the lona gave them all their rations of yerba, rice, & maize.  Juan viejo help to kill with Pedro Segunda came to sharpen axes.

Very cold morning with S wind but nice afternoon.

[Vertical in left margin] Killed old cow.

May 23rd May

Making door for W.C. Hacinto Peicho, Serapio, Eduardo & boyero left early for the Palmar.  A Lieutenant & six soldiers stopped the night en route to La Verde to join a Major & 150 soldiers.

Cold cloudy day

24th May

Lieut Pedro Ygeroba left with his soldiers lent them a hide (cow mora) to cross the Salado said they would leave this side of the pass.  Missed 3 horses (2 potros 1 mare).  Working in the garden.  1st frost slight.

Warm day but cloudy.

[Vertical in left margin] Killed (cow)

25th May

Filling up old W.C. & digging in garden.  Hezequiel & Zapato looking for lost potros didn’t come across them also cleaning the adobes.  Domingo from puesto came over for monkey wrench reported 14 oxen came back from Palmar  Segundo (indian) took away ½ bag maize.

Nice day little cloudy.

— 26th May —

Digging in the garden Hezequiel & Zapato in camp latter went to Puesto to see if the Potros were there also took the monkey wrench.  Jacinto looking for his oxen.

Nice day.

(27th May)

Went to Puesto came back with Zapato & Domingo & 1 potro & horse belonging to Serapio.  found them in the monte near the pass faulting a potro.  Mrs. Angela seedy gave Domingo pills for her.  Segundo came with lion skin gave him 3 kilos of yerba Jacinto came took away adze, saw, & big bit to make a new yugo (broke one).

Warm day lots of mosquitos.

May 28th May

Digging in the garden and setting fire to grass round the house.  Eduardo came with cart in the morning in order to take back meat tomorrow,

Hot day – with mosquitos.

[Change of author to: Alfred]

— 29 May —

Sunday.  Butchered cow.  Alfredo & Pancho came back from San Cristobal.  Robson had left for Las Lomas.  Alfredo slept 1st night Lorenzo’s puesto.  2nd night Mte. Aguara opposite Estero gde. 3rd night Michelas.  4th San Cristobal—.  5th Pelado station.  6th Estancia Pelada.  7 Maria Luisa, R.R. & San Cristobal (Lassners).  8th San Cristobal.  9 Villalbas.  10 home.  Signed contract with Gillingham for land here (8 leagues) from June 1st 5 yrs, Went to La Pelada (Mrs. Kroeger) to see cattle for Johnnie but could not trade.- Cattle very thin everywhere, and camps dry up (south wards).  Salado still high.  Hazy warm day & mosquitos.

— 30 May —

South wind & coldish.  Carts hauling posts.  Have camp up in Palmar.  Lake still high.  Ezekiel reports creciente coming in camp westward of lake, Pancho doing odd jobs around.

— 31 May —

Marked tambera calves in afternoon 32.  Some left yet.  Marking reached 2302 this year.  A recorrered at south puestos. – Cold south wind.

June, 1892

June 1 / 92

Butcherd old cow.  Cattle looking very well yet.  1st heavy frost.  Warm day. – Nothing going on.

— 3. June —

Yesterday morning early, Alfredo, Donkin, Zappato, and Juan Antonio went to recorrer up at Lagunas Dulce beyond Palmar lake, and came back tonight by way of Fortin Union.  Saw no cattle track, no game, and fearful lot of water & mosquitos.  Cold weather.  Two animals died of mancha.

— 4 June —

Marked 8 more tambera calves.  It was a pleasant day.  Frost.  Making preparations for making chimney.- Planting onions.- Carts came from Palmar to begin hauling posts towards Fortin Union.  Tire of wheel (2 wheeled) of cart broke.

5 June

Butchered old cow.  Sunday.  Nothing going. Regulating peones a/c.

— 6 June —

Eduardo and Pancho went with cart to Calchaqui taking broken wheel, plough etc to get fixed.  Measured out line from Salado (Fortin Union) to beginning of swamp towards Palmar 4100 metres and put canes every 100 metres to dump posts at.— Sinn turned up had rough time as he had slept near paso as Fraitres was afraid to pass over.  Elia passed him over.  Sick in bed he is.- Warm day & plenty of mosquitos.

June 7 -/ 92

Sinn still sick – bad cold.— Made chimney in house.  Peicho cutting alfa.  Windy & looks like rain.  Lions & tigers killed 15 animals last 2 months.  Donkin transplanting onions.—

— 8 June —

Sinn little better.  Got in part of alfa.  Old Juan brought mail.  Change of weather to cold.  Nothing going on.—

— 9 June —

Received 400 techas from Ewaldino & Co. (about 30 over).  Bro’t leña.  Fine warm day.  Sinn little better.—

— 10 June —

Making preparations to go south tomorrow.  Alfred, Donkin & Sinn.  Serapio goes along to take lion and bring back horse, Indians that were cutting tiles all turned and regulated a/c.— Cart also turned up from Calchaqui bringing wheel fixed, plow ditto, yerba, soap and Tobacco.  Peicho and Hacintha bro’t quebracho seantlings for making box of cart to haul wire, Fine day.

[There are no more entries for June.  The next entry is July 2.]

1892 - Qtr.3

[Click to download Q3 page images (4 mb PDF file)]

July, 1892

July 2.

Alfredo came back today from La California.  Had very cold weather from 10th to 28th with very hard frosts and the grasses are quite burned up.  The 3 carts finished hauling posts for fence and left for San Cristobal to bring wire on the 27th.  The cart men are Jacinto (capataz), Peicho, Pancho, Eduardo & Pepito (bueyero).  Ezekiel & Zapatto are here alone, and at Puesto are Elia, Domingo & Serapio.  The butcher parted 16 cows and 4 novillos this week.  Paid Cappato up to date, also lent Oberlin $200.00 to bring maiz.  Encargared him 200 ar. from Reconquista.  Also pd rent into London & River Plate bank for camp (8 leagues) from June 1st 1 yr. in advance.  $600 gold, less [above: at 330%] 500 paper pd. [above: 151.50 gold] pd. before in last yrs rent. = 448.50 gold at 1393.82 paper.– Nothing been going on here.– Mayor Teofilo Hongas with a commission of 25 soldiers went past on 1st June for Reconqta.  Report indians stealing cattle from Pablo Arriolo (Tostado).  Bought mantencion in Santa Fé, and hired cart to bring it out.- Still plenty of water in camp.– But want rain for grass.  Good deal of sickness at Elias and Lorenzos.

— 3 July —

Sunday.  Beastly dry north wind.  A. recorrered up Palmar.  Ruano horse died, seemed belly ache.–

— 4.July —

Warm day and dry north wind.  A. recorrered south.  Sent Zappato to meet toritos from home, to go as far as Tres Marias if necessary.

— 5 July —

Hot day with wind and very hazy.  Butchered old cow.  Nothing going.  Planted tobacco seed.

— 6 July —

Hot north wind changed to south tonight and looked rainy.  Small manga of locusts passed northward.  Recorrered north west.  Camps pretty well burnt.

— 7 July —

Coldish day & muggy strong south wind.  Manuel came with the toritos from “La California 68 bulls and 15 Cordobese horses and mare and colt.  Also brought novillo morro from Pedro Grands, and the potro mala cara lost last February.  The men were 18 days on road and left 4 toritos at Loas Cardos.  Donald McIntosh got sick on road and left by RRoad from Progresso for home.

— 8 July —

Took the bulls up Palmar to “carro volcado”, to pick up again.  Cold day & cleared up again.  Men here yet.  Serapio bro’t mail.  Cart not coming.

— 9 July —

Manuel & his two companions left for down south again via Calchaqui.  Gave Manuel $10.00 for expenses.  Told Zequiel that Elia would come here as Capataz and Paraguay Nicolas as puestero.  Very hard frost.  Overo horse sick belly ache.– Fine day. –

— 11 July —

Yesterday This evening, Alfredo came back from Robsons (Canton Muelle) where he had gone to yesterday morning.  Very cold weather and Salado very cold to swim.  A killed a pig and Ewaldino a tiger on other side.  A got cold I guess influenza coming on.  Hauser came tonight with Nicolas Figueroa, and another chap.  Bro’t letter saying Donald McIntosh died.

— 12 July –—

Alfredo sick influenza (guess).  Elia took the Cordobese horses 15 without mare and mala cara potro, to Espin with the redomon tropilla from puesto, to have a rest before capando.  Made arrangements with Hauser for him to come and work as a chacrero and his wife as house-keeper.  Pay $40.00 per month.  Hard frost.  Cold day.

— 13 July —

Hauser & his companions left for Calchaqui.  Alfredo pretty sick.  Cart came out from Calchaqui bringing the cargo bought in Santa Fé.  Paid $18.00/ for freight (vale).  American named Martin turned up from Calchaqui.  Stops few days.  Hard frost.  Ewaldino bro’t tiger skin.

— 14 July —

Took a turn up Palmar with Martin.  He wants to settle in neighbourhood.  Hacintha turned up from other side.  Bro’t varillas and wire up to edge Bañado Salado, and has two trips more to make yet.  Took meat etc.  Alfredo still seedy.  Warmer weather.

— 15 July —

[above line: Butchered cow] Showed Mr Martin up Salado as far as mojon, where he would like to poblar with a 5 or 600 head of cattle.  Elia came back from Espin.  Bro’t all the spare mancarones and tropilla mellada (puesto).  Robson came from his place.  Frost, but warm day.

— 16 July —

Martin left for Costa.  Elia and family moved up here.  Nicolas had begun work on 13th & boy.  And Paolo today (puesto).  Jose Mance killed Danino tiger on Calchaqui.  Robson here yet.  Warm day.

July 17 July —

Sunday.  Robson left this morning.  Warm day.  Nothing going on.

— 18 July —

Went up to see the bulls.  They are all apestados, but not seriously.  Gave them a corretiado to make them  swept  purgar.  Hauser with his family came (old Ponce brought them.  Warm day.  Guess seca will keep on, no sign of rain.–

— 19 July —

Some of the bulls very sick.  Hauser fixing up galponcita to live in and kitchen.  Butchered cow.  Had a nice little shower of rain this afternoon.

— 20 July —

Nothing going on.  Hauser fixing up glaponcito.  It was a beautiful day.

— 21 July —

Temporalish sort of day, but no rain.  Transplanted peach and some paraiso trees.  Hacintha was here.  The carts made another trip with wire to point of monte.  Hauser revocando galponcito.–

— 22 July —

Brot the sound bulls from Palmar and let them mix with cattle.  Bro’t 41 – 2 are among cattle – 6 dead, and rest sick.  Butchered novillos (from Pedro Gedes).  Pancho came with two wheeled cart.  Other two carts will bring wire across Salado Estero.  Hauser revocando galponcito.  Looks rainy and mosquitoes about.–

— 23 July —

Zequiel took Tomas & wife to Robsons and goes to look for the 3 horses the cartmen lost.  Pancho bro’t load leña and then dug holes, for quinta fence around house.

July 24

Paolo bro’t mail.  Sunday.  Alfredo & Hauser took turn up monte, bro’t some cattle across.  Hot sultry day.

— 25 July —

Zequiel came back from Robsons.  Found the lost horses.  Entre Rios (Eduardo) sick.  Pancho took his place with carts which are hauling wire across Salado esteros to paso.  Martin the Texan came tonight from Pajaro Blanco where he had been to buy some horses.

— 26 July —

Hauser began harrowing the land for alfa seed.  Strong north wind and quite hot, looks like rain.  Martin left for San Cristobal via Robsons, to try arrange for land to settle on.  Left 5 horses here.  Old Juan brought 13 of the mestizo bulls hides which had died so far.  Some mancha among the yearlings also.

— 27 July —

Had a bit of a storm, but only a sprinkle.  Hauser still harrowing and cleaning the alfa land.  Carts passing the wire etc over the Salado.  Alfredo goes to recorrer up north tomorrow.  Butchered cow 28th.

[No entry 28 & 29 July]

— 30 July —

Alfredo, Juan Antonio & Ezekiel came back from recorriendo.  Went up outside of Palmar, and around Cueva del Tigre, & Zarnocito and back by costa monte.  saw no cattle tracks.  [Alfred rode north along the western shores of Laguna del Palmar and Laguna de la Cueva del Tigre, returning along their eastern shores.] Bag – 1 mulita, 8 goose eggs, 2 pigs, 1 tuyango, 1 goose.  First two days hot, and today temporal blowing.  Hacintha, Peicho, Pancho & Eduardo began fence on costa of Salado.  Three more bulls died.  Martin’s brother senion came today.

— 31 July —

Sunday.– Murky temporalish sort of day.  Nothing going on.  Butchered. [scribbled between lines: ]Bernescorn there.  Says Miguel Duran got 4 horses from indians , 2 died.

August, 1892

Aug 1 —

Drizzly murky sort of day.  J. Martin came from San Cristobal.  is here with his mother.

Cattle for sale B.A. al corte Martin Lynch.  Estancia Margarita Estacion Soler. – F.C.Pacifico

Guil. Harrison “Marion”.  Soler. – Al corte 8 to $9.00

— 2 Aug. —

Rained nearly all last night and good deal of today.  Very heavy rain.  Martin bros. here.

— 3 Aug. —

Went up Salado with Martin bros.  They will settle near mojon up Salado.  Hauser planted about 60 paraiso trees in front of house.  Found 3 dead calves. Men recorrered up north.  Butchered cow.

— 4 Aug. —

Took a turn up Palmar with Martin bros.  Hilario Saavedro came tonight.  Hot day and looks like more rain.

— 5 Aug. —

Had another rain last night but fine day.  Saavedro parted puesto rodeo.  10 [above: (ugly)] cows 2 [above: ] novillos.  Martin bros. went to Calchaqui.  Lent them pack mule.  G. Martin comes back tomorrow.  J. Martin goes to buy and bring cattle.  Sent Serapio to the Curvo to bring horses Miguel Duran bro’t from espedicion.  Plenty of water in camp.  Cattle looking well at puesto, calving fast.

— 6 Aug. —

Alambrado peones moved tent towards Palmar again as too much water on west side to work.  Fine growing day.  Grass up high already.  Hauser breaking up camp.

— 7 Aug. —

Sunday.  Looks very rainy & mosquitos bad.  Nothing going on.  G. Martin came back from Calchaqui, bro’t mail.

— 8 Aug. —

Had Palmar rodeo on and capared some big bulls.  Butchered old cow.  Temporalish weather.  Hauser preparing alfa land.

— 9 Aug. —

G Martin went up to begin his poblacion with Pedrito.  Made new rodeo south of house.  Cattle looking well.  Planted alfa 1/3 of a square [0.6 hect.] (17 kilos).  The 3 carts take 120 tiles, 5 long palms for house & 11 dry palms for estantes.  Weather turned fine again.  Sent handle and share of plow with Lorenzo to Calchaqui to get fixed.–

— 10 Aug. —

Harrowed in about 10 kilos seed into old alfa, and then Hauser began to fix up chacra fence.  Alfredo went down to Robsons.  Fine day.

— 11 Aug. —

Alfred came back with Robson.  Hauser working at chacra fence.  Looks stormy.

Aug 12 / 92 —

Robson left.  Took 2 more dogs.  Butchered old cow.  Fine day.

— 13 Aug. —

Cartmen turned up.  New peon Hacintha Benits began work yesterday fixing fence round house with Serapio.  Serapio did not bring the horses M. Duran brought from expedition (says were none).  Hauser trying to plough. (out of order).  Frost.  Alfredo recorred up Palmar.

— 14 Aug. —

Sunday.  Nothing going on.  Dicharga Pancho, Pepito, & Eduardo.  Fine day.

— 15 Aug. —

Hacintha hauled 2 loads of posts for [above: division] potrero fence, and thus begins to work with Peicho, Serapio & Hacintha Benits.  Butchered an old thin cow. – Cold night.

— 16 Aug. —

Fixing up fence round peon house.  Nothing going on.  Fine day. –

— 17 Aug. —

Alfredo recorrered on other side of Calchaqui, no cattle.  Hot day.  Butchered old cow. J. Martin came with his cattle and locks in tonight about 760 head.  Hauser plowing chacra.

— 18 Aug. —

Had on rodeo at puesto and marked 12 calves and capared some bulls.  Peones from Martin’s came back after delivering the cattle.  Hot day with strong north wind.  Hauser finished plowing chacra and is breaking up camp.

Aug 19 / 92

Weather changed again, South wind.  A. was up at Martins.  Elia recorrered up to end of Palmar lake.  Hacintha stretching wire on division fence.

— 20 Aug. —

Put on Palmar rodeo and marked 10 calves and capared about 20 bulls.  Butchered novillo.  A. and Hauser went up other side of Calchaqui to sleep to hunt.  Cool day.

21 Aug. —

A. & Hauser came back tonight.  Went near to Laguna del Perro & Wampita.  [They rode NE from Los Palmares, half way to Vera – see map.] bag 1 ostrich, saw some pigs.  H. Saavedra had sent men to part reses, but told them would not deliver as old cows are too thin.  Hot day.

22 Aug. —

Slight rain last night to lay dust.  Alfred left for Calchaqui, also J. Martin who goes to Buenos Ayres.  2 carts went to Calchaqui taking the hides 122. – Hacintha Rojas, Serapio & Hacinta Benites goes with cart.

[No entries 23 & 24 Aug.]

— 25 Aug. —

Alfredo came back from Calchaqui.  Sold the hides [above: (122)] good price 4.90 without disecharing any to M. Cañuellas.  Saavedra pd $100 on a/c. he still owes $70.30 (Bought 2 young [above: Oberlin] pigs 12.00 3 bags maiz, plow 45.00, sheets made etc.  Oberlins reducing his debt to me to $63.30/.– Pd. Cappato $200.00 on a/c. I guess he owes about $100 to me now.  Leaving me Cash on hand $530.  Rec’d cargo from Santa Fé, which is most for Martin bros. bag flour and bbl. biscuits for me.  Hacinta Roja went on to Curva.  Butchered novillo here.  Breaking up camp with two yokes oxen.  Peicho hauled two loads of posts to fence. – Fine weather. –

— 26 Aug. —

Carts came from Calchaqui bringing 3 bags maiz 3 bags potatos (seed), 1 bag yerba, 2 pigs, plow, 1 bbl biscuits, 1 bag flour, etc and Martin’s things & Hausers.  Hauser plowing with two yoke of oxen.  Peicho hauled two loads of posts here.  Strong south wind.

— 27 Aug. —

Hauled two loads of leña.  It was a coldish day.  Peicho huntared oxen from puesto.– Made chicarre for pigs and began bake oven.

— 28 Aug. —

Sunday.  Nothing going.  Cold day.  Elia recorrered down south.

— 29 Aug. —

Gave Serapio permission to bring wife.  Hacinta also took cart to bring woman cook.  Peicho & Eduardo work at fence.  Alfredo was up at Martin’s.  Robson and Holden came this evening.

— 30 Aug. —

Had Salado rodeo on and marked 4 calves, capared about 35 bulls, and butchered a cow.  A. & Holden were up at Palmar.  [above: Orso cleared out.] Foggy morning and fine day.

— 31 Aug. —

Robson & Holden left.  Cart came tonight bringing 6 bags maiz 400 kilos (Oberlin) and Hacinta’s and Serapios wives.  Warm day.  South wind.

September, 1892

Sept 1 / 92

Hard frost.  Capared about 35 bulls at puesto rodeo.  J. Martin came from Buenos Ayres brought mail.  Hacinta, Peicho, Serapio, Barros & Eduardo working at fence.

2 Sep. —

A. was up at Palmar, Ewaldino & Juan cutting tiles.  Got young aguara.  Warm day.

X. 3 .X

Put Palmar rodeo and capared about 35 bulls.  Butchered cow.  Felis began working.  Pole came on foot looking for work.  Immense manga of locusts passed south-ward.- Alfred goes to sleep at Martin’s to go up Salado with them tomorrow.Warm day.

— 4 Sep. —

Boy from Ramirez, Agustin Frutes came today to stop here and work.  Alfred came back from up Salado.  Found nothing at all.  Two Italians were also here looking for work.  Hot day and plenty of mosquitos.

— 5 Sep. —

Planted 3 bags of potatoes and preparing land for patatas.  Pole began work in field, and Agustin helped this forenoon.  Can’t find tropilla of Cordobess horses, but lot of mosquitos last night.  7 or 8 paisano families passed up Palmar way.- Elia sent his wife to the Curba with Domingo to get cured.- Hot forenoon but wind changed south strong & thundering (seca).

Sept 6 / 92

Looked for Cordobese horses.  Elia found tracks of indians driving about 32 horses up along Palmar lake.  8 of the Cordobese horses were found in rinconado Salado where they are fencing and Peichos horse and toruno picaso.  (7 of Cordobese horses are missing, Alfreds picaso gtle.  [gde – grande?] and madrina and colt.) Will go tomorrow and see where tracks lead to.  Moon full.  Butchered black cow.

— 7 Sep. —

Alfred and Juan Antonio went up to where Elia saw trail of horses and then cut over to Martin’s but could not find any trail going out, afterwards recorrered rinconado of potrero.  Enrique and 3 other paisanos went to work at fence.  Paolo also came to work at fence.  It was a fine day.  Hauser and Co. planting patatas.  Hard frost.

— 8 Sep. —

Alfredo and Elia followed up trail of horses as far as angostura of Palmar lake [north, see map].  It seems that they are not indians but gauchos according to signs left at camp fire at Curipizal.  The trail is about 63 animals (only 10 are from here).  Follow up tomorrow with G. Martin Felis & Ewaldino & Juan Gonzales.  Guess they are same lot that passed Lorenzo’s puesto on Sunday who said were going to La Verde.  Gave Elia $100.00 for any emergency.  Butchered a black cow.

[No entries during chase: 9 - 22 Sep.]

Sept 23 / 92

[The chase after the horse thieves lasted 2 weeks.  Alfred & co. rode almost due west from Laguna del Palmar, past Tostado and Malbrán, to the shores of the Rio Dulce, about halfway from Tostado (Santa Fé) to Ojo de Agua (S. del Estero), approx. 300 km (60 leagues) out, another 300 km. back.]

Alfredo, G. Martin came back from after following up gauchos as far as Laco Puneo – Rio Dulce (Santiago).  Took along Felis, Ewaldino & bro Juan.  Followed their trail as far as Puerto Novillo where it got lost, and then went to Comisario Gabino Lazar at Laco Puneo – but who gave little hope as the gauchos [above: alcalde Rodriguez] had passed [above: Paso Beltram] Rio Dulce two days before. and gone to Ojo del Agua [above: Lozas bros] evidently.  Our horses suffered greatly for water and would have collapsed if it were not for Wm. Green estacion Argentina who got water from train for horses.  And on costa Dulce the feed and water were very bad.  The gauchos were 6 (1 was indian) and think under the leaders Juan Cuello & Fabian Carrizzo.  But here they think it was Antonio Lara.  Mauricio Lopez came as far as Malbram station and gave A. a mule to ride that far.  Comisario [above: Domingo] Peran of Pamitas also treated us very well and got a neighbor to sell us two horses for $60.00.  1st night followed track about two leagues west of most northern laguna Dulce of Palmar lake.  2nd Costa Salado about a league beyond some crooked algarrobos.  3rd night about league east of Portaliz.  4th about ½ way between Portalis & Argentina.  5th 3 leagues west of Argentina.  6 Puerto Novillo.  7 Gabino Lagar.  8th Fte. Union [above: west edge].  9 Viuda.  10 Palmitas.  11 Tostado Fortin.  12 San Pedro.  13 Costa Salado about 10 leagues from here.  14th about 1 league west Martin’s.- 15 home.  Had some very cold weather and heavy frosts, and plenty of locusts.  A very poor country is prov. Santiago.  Martin’s cattle had all cleared out and mixed too and the best camp is the Viuda on Costa Salado, and campo of Palo Negro is very nice but no water.  People are very hospitable up that way and were treated very well by everybody.  Nothing particular going on here, but plenty of tame indians knocking about.  Told Old Juan to clear out on that account.  [above: Been caparing bulls all along.] On fence are working Jacinta, Peicho, Eduardo, Paolo, and 4 paisanos began today.

— 24 Sep. —

Wrote a letter to Junco telling him about the horse thieves.  Old Juan delivered his horses, he goes tomorrow.  Elia looked for Cacique Valentin over at Wampita who it seems took off the picaso toruno.  Windy dry day.  Hauser finished planting maiz in old chacra.  Paolo went to Calchaqui.  It is getting to be a big seca, and the chacra looks like a dust heap.

— 25 Sep. —

Sunday.  Butchered old cow.  Hauser went to Calchaqui with pack mule to bring out soap, tobacco & mail.  Countermarked Old Juans  cows; he is off.  No one stops at puesto Palmar, But Ewaldino cut tiles.  & Jose Manuel cuts paja for house.  Began to sprinkle but cleared off again.

— 26 Sep. —

Old Juan and crew left.  his puesto at Palmar empty now.  A. was up at fence.  Robson stops night, also G. Martin.

27 Sep.

Had on Palmar rodeo and finished caparing the two year olds.  G. Martin parted out 3 animals mañeros.  Elia went to recorrer down south tomorrow.  Hilario Saavedra came to see whether would sell old cows.  Doña Angela came back from Vera.  It was a fine coldish day.  Hauser came back from Calchaqui bringing 10 kilos tobacco, 30 kilos soap, cigs. boots etc.  Robson here yet.-

— 28 Sep. —

Saavedra left with Robson.  [above: Butchered cow.] Saavedra goes to Villalbas to try and buy reses.  Elia came back from southwards.  Bro’t up some of Robson’s cattle.  (Frost slight).

— 29 Sep. —

Alfredo recorrered in monte.  Paolo came from Calchaqui also two new peones ‘parientes’ of Elia for fence.  Saavedra came back from Villalbos could not find reses, wants to part here tomorrow.  J. Martin also came.  Frost (slight).  Hot day.

— 30 Sep. —

Put on Puesto rodeo and J. Martin parted 8 animals of his, and capared about 20 bulls.  H. Saavedro parted 9 animals – 5 cows at 18.00 3 novillos @ $30.  1 of at 35.00 = $215.00 He arreglared and pd. up his old a/c and owes on this tropa $90.00 – Hot day and looks like rain.

1892 - Qtr.4

[Click to download Q4 page images (2 mb PDF file)]

October, 1892

Oct 1.-/92

Had on Costa rodeo, and Martin finished parting his cattle about 38. Also finished caplaring the two year old toritos. Butchered old cow. Litzman came and stops the night. Hauser hauling manure on to chacra.

October 2 - 5

[No entries while Alfred on ride to Jacaré.]

— 6 Oct. —

Alfredo, Elia & Domingo had gone to the Jacaré on the 2nd and came back tonight. Did not capar the colts nor part any potros as the mares are too thin, but brought the tropilla (12) of redomones and also parted 6 animals from the two rodeos at Jacaré. Sold 1 novillo from Jacaré great overo negro brand rengo to Hilario Saavedra at $35.00 . Saavedra now owes 125.00 . Pd. regulated a/c with Cappato. Oberlin owes me about $16.00 yet. Butchered cow on 4th. Paolo left. Litzmaan left Monday 3rd. Jacinto still at work at fence near lake.

— 7 Oct. —

Nothing going on. Hauser working at garden.

— 8 Oct. —

Took Hauser up to Palmar to clean piece of canutillo where the posts were cut. Butchered cow. Robson came.

— 9 Oct. —

Sunday. All hands went up to Martin’s to help capar. Nicolas Domingo, Felix and Elias nephew went to apartes down to Camila Michelos Robsons etc. Serapio bro’t mail. Fine little shower of rain, but want more.

— 10 Oct. —

Sent cart to Calchaqui, Jacinto and new peon went. Other fence (4) peons cut & haul posts to fence. Heavy fog this morning. Robson left this afternoon. J. Martin was here.

— 11 Oct. —

Butchered fat novillo. Nothing going on; weather looks rainy again. Lame Pancho was here. Hauser fixing up old bit of alfa.

— 12 Oct. —

Cart came back from Calchaqui bringing maiz, potatos, yerba, tobacco, soap. Water in well bad. Clean it out tomorrow. Hauser plowing up north ½ of old alfa to resow. South wind and looks dry again.

— 13 Oct. —

Hauser plowing and harrowing this part of old alfa. Cleaned out well. Elia recorrered in monte, report no cattle tracks. Ewaldino & Co. left cutting tiles to go and nutriar at Laguna Perro. Very hot day NE wind and beginning to rain 9 P.M.

— 14 Oct. —

Alfredo was up at Martin’s. Hauser still regulating alfa ground. Nicolas came back from apartes – parted at Pedro Grande 37 Michelos 1 and Robsons 20.- capared the bulls that came. Did not part at Mercedes and Camila as cattle are too thin to work. Had a windstorm last night, but no rain. Guess regular seca set in. cool day.

— 15 Oct. —

Replanted part old alfa. Martin bro. were here. Alfredo, Hauser and J. Martin go up to sleep at Lagunas Dulces North of Palmar. Nothing going on.

— 16 Oct. —

Sunday. A & cta came back tonight – found nothing. Robson came. Elia brought 191 tiles from Palmar to fix his house. Looks stormy tonight. Robson came.

— 17 Oct. —

Perico came with 6 men to make tropa of novillos for down south. He brought 26 novillos of Larguias to send down. Put on Palmar rodeo at noon and parted out the novillos (225) this afternoon. Perico and 5 men worked: the other man stopped at puesto to care for Larguias novillos. It was an overcast day and looks like east rain wants to set in. Robson here. Butchered black cow. Novillos gave work to lock in and 2 or 3 escaped.

— 18 Oct. —

Rained slightly this morning and was a threatening day. Parted out 118 good novillos from Salado rodeo and took the tropa to puesto to lock in. Elia had rodado and put his foot out of joint. Robson here. Cattle picking up fast but want rain badly as grass is short, and maiz is not out yet.

— 19 Oct. —

Parted out the novillos at puesto rodeo – about 130 – marched them as far as [Larngro or Sarngo] puesto and counted them 476 of JB brand – 26 of Larguias and 6 vaquillonas. Gave Perico $100.00 along for expenses. The men earn $3.00 per day with out yerba etc. Palonio goes along: begins tonight. Robson left. Gave Elia $200.00 to pay expenses when I am gone. As I go south tomorrow. Weather looks suspicious but it is hard to rain.

20 Oct. – 2 Dec.

[No entries while Alfred was “south” taking herd to “La California”.]

December, 1892

— Dec 3/92 —

Alfredo came back from home today. Found things here dry and some of the esteros giving out. Hacinta had finished camp fence, got more wire & varillas & torniquets from San Cristobal, fenced in new chacra, and put roof on new galpon. Perico had delivered south 479 novillos and 1 vaquilla. Had taken 476 novillos from here, 3 from camp, 4 from Pedro Grande, 2 from La Zara and 2 died in desparada ought to be 482 – 479 = 3 short.

Cost of tropa $572 our share. 1.19 per hd. Villalba had been here, also Carterio, Hilario, Robson & Williams, Martins & mother. Also bro’t 400 bundles paja from near Laguna Perro.

Men working are Elia 30 (capataz) Felix 18 Serapio 18, Agustin 15 (boy) Manuel 18 (foot peon) Hauser 40 (& wife chacrero) Nicolas 30 (puestero) & two boys 30. Lorenzo 20 (puestero), boy 15, cook woman 10. $234.00 wages per month. Jacinto goes to Ocampo in a day or two.

— 4 Dec. —

Sunday. Alfredo was at Martin’s and revisared esteros. Guess enough water for another month. Pd Jacinto off he goes to Ocampo tomorrow. Send cart to Calchaqui to bring out cargo etc. Strong south wind. Lots of fires up north. Butchered old cow.

— 5 Dec. —

Had on puesto rodeo and parted out 22 old cows separated from last years calves and put them into potrero, to fatten. Cart went to Calchaqui (Manuel). Hacinto & wife go to Ocampo. Robson came at noon. Strong hot north east wind. drying!

— 6 Dec. —

Had on Salado rodeo and parted out 16 old cows and put in potrero to fatten – making 59 there now. Robson left this evening. Sweltering hot dry day. Looks stormy south. Patricio and Paolo came. Hauser hoeing out weeds. Arreglared puesto peones.

— 7 Dec. —

Had on Palmar rodeo and parted out some black novillitos to make señueles and 25 old cows for envernada – making 84 in potrero. Butchered old cow. Nicolas had butchered 17 animals since last a/c. agree to sell him Donkins cattle with mark at $50.00, and cattle [pencilled in above: not sold] at $12.00 two calves for one, but without the 4 big novillos & torunos. Cart came from Calchaqui with 200 canes, 4 bags maiz, (2 bags yerba, 1 flour, 1 box kerosene, demijohn caña, Santa Fé) Robson sent for wire & rice (none!).

— 8 Dec. —

Serapio & Manuel hoeing in field. Hauser plowing up a weedy patch of maiz. Sent to paso for box canoe to make bebida for horses. Hot day and looks stormy.

— 9 Dec. —

Had a splendid rain nearly all forenoon with strong south wind, but not enough to juntar water in esteros. Serapio harrowed new land, and Hauser plowed. Transplanted nearly 300 patata plants. Cart brought 16 hides from puesto.

— 10 Dec. —

Took the milch cattle down to potrero, so that they get more water, except a few to milk and work oxen. Very cool day with strong south wind. Same work as yesterday in chacra. Nicolas bro’t señueleros up to handle. Fine weather for transplanted batatas.

— 11 Dec. —

Sunday. A. was up at Martin’s all day. Elia recorrered in monte. Butchered old cow. Fine cool day.

— 12 Dec. —

Had on puesto rodeo; moved it further south on account of pantano. parted out 7 head of Donkins cattle with 3 calves. some more blacks for senuelas, and 7 old cows & put in potrero. Capared the yearlings among tamberas. Cesar Vuelle came with Perico & another peon to look at Monte Aguara camp for poblaring. Showed them Fuerte Union. An French man from the nutrieros (Cacique Mariano) at Cuevo del Tigre came to see about having other indians put off Co. lands. Julio Farat seems to pay the Co. for right to nutriar. It was a warm beautiful day. Wants heavy rain badly to fill esteros, but cattle are lookly very well, and the calves are great big fat things. Hauser cross plowing new chacra for maiz & Serapio harrowing. Manuel hoeing zaballos etc.

— 13 Dec. —

Had on Salado rodeo and parted about a dozen of Donkins mark, also a couple of old cows to invernar. Descornared some more senueleros making 20 altogether. The Mayor Domo of La Camila – Manuel Lema came with gente to part. Warm day looks stormy. Vuelle left for Robsons.

— 14 Dec. —

Had on Palmar rodeo and parted some more of Donkins cattle. Butchered old cow. Apartadores found none of Cabals mark. Hauser began planting maiz behind plow with Serapio and Manuel. Very hot day. Apartadores left for Robsons.

— 15 Dec. —

Planting maiz. Very hot east wind, drying. Felis went down to Pedro Gran campiando two mares. Thatching kitchen.

— 17 Dec. —

Alfredo yesterday had gone down to Robsons and came back this evening with him. Horse (morro) got away from there, finished planting maiz in new chacra, also planted 2 rows of zaballos 2 sq. long. hard shell. Felix came back, found the two mares gate of Zara. Report apartadores with Vargas parted big red novillo JB brand from Pedro Grands. Strong east wind blowing storm together. Finished nailing roof onto galpon.

— 18 Dec. —

Saturday. Hot day and looks very stormy. Want it very badly as esteros are nearly drying up. About the worst seca we had yet. Robson left. Left Benancia pack mule to take his things to Robsons. Peicho left also. J. Martin was here; is without peones.

— 19 Dec. —

Had a little shower of rain towards morning. Guess will have more tonight. Planted maiz in old chacra (juyal) & zaballas. Also transplanted 94 batata plants. Morro turned up at Robsons.

— 20 Dec. —

Sent Elias, Felix, Agustin & Palonio to the apartes to the Camila etc. Took the Cordobese tropilla and a few more. Finished planting maiz in yuyal, also transplanted batata finished 8 rows. Splendid shower of rain at siesta but not enough to juntar water & only local. Sent boy from puesto for mail tomorrow. Finished planting altogether at last. Fixed corredor of house, put edge round it, and filled up more.

— 21 Dec. —

Stormy day and rained towards evening. Summer showers. Sent Manuel to Martin’s to give them a hand at work. Serapio & Mariano alone on place. Began digging out patatas, poor crop, average one to a plant.

— 22 Dec. —

Could not put puesto rodeo on, a/c mud in camp. Had rained & hailed quite hard at puesto, here only slightly. A. was up at Martin’s. Hauser began cutting alfa which is splendid. South wind but swedty day. Guess more rain will set in soon.

— 23 Dec. —

Had puesto rodeo on, cured & capered about 25 yearling bulls. Got in the dry alfa. Alfredo left for San Cristobal.

— 24 Dec.’92 – 3 Jan.’93 —

[No entries while Alfred was at San Cristobal for the holidays.]

© Peter Benitz (Benitz Family)