Alfred A. Benitz Page last modified:

Mistolar & Los Palmares

Calchaquí, Santa Fé — 1895
(age: 36 years old)

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In his last entry of 1894, on December 2nd, Alfred mentions he will be leaving for “La California” (down south) on the 4th – presumably travelling by train.

Alfred’s first 20 or so entries for 1895 are in list form, beginning on March 18.  He travels to Rosario, Reconquista, Calchaquí, Pajaro Blanco, & Corralitos – most entries are related to an unspecified legal matter requiring witnesses.  In Reconquista he meets with Lorenzo & Elisa Güller, on unspecified business; Elisa was Frank Benitz’s widow.  Alfred returns to “Los Palmares” on March 30.

On April 18 the writing style changes, it is smoother and slanted.  We label it as Author: Alfred, slanted hand-writing for it is almost certainly Alfred attemping to improve his handwriting – a couple of months later the two styles swap and mix in the same entry for a single day.

Rented Camps:

Production - cattle sent down to La California:

Indian Troubles:
During September, a band of 7 indians stole 39 horses & mules from Los Palmares. Alfred, neighbor Casimiro Gay, & 8 peones pursued the indianss 150-200 km. into the far north of Santa Fé province.  Following a counter raid upon the indians and an ensuing fight he was able to recover fewer than half of those stolen.


Transcription Notes: The day-book has been transcribed as written, without corrections to spelling or grammar; however, when in doubt we chose the most correct.  We inserted month titles and (except for March and early April) applied a standard format to dates, adding the month where missing (abbreviated to 3 letters).  Anything else we added or corrected is enclosed within [square brackets, with our comments in italics.]  (Transcribed by: Michael Mohr-Bell.)

Reference pages

Written in English by Alfred, the day-book is full of Spanglish terms as well as many other terms unfamiliar to us today.  To assist with names (people & places), maps, measures, currencies, and Spanglish terminology, we have created a set of Reference pages.  The reference pages open in a separate tab / window making them available in parallel to the diary (i.e. this window).

1895 - Qtr.2

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March, 1895

[Author: Alfred]
[Entries are in list form, style duplicated here.]

Left home on 18th of March.

19th in Rosario making purchases for dry goods.– Ironware, drugs etc, and attended first meeting of Santa Fé Rural Society.–

20th left Rosario for Santa Fé with Mr Marty; met Mr and Young Ricketts, Richards etc.

21st went to Reconquista.– With Marty.

22nd & 23 Reconquista.  Saw Güllers on business, and also drove out to Ramayons place on a visit.–

24 to Calchaqui

25  "  Pajaro blanco with tropilla & Patricio.

26. At Hopes.  Saw juez, also went to George Spence.

27 "   "  & down at Corralitos.

28 "   "  & the juzgado with witnesses.

29  To Calchaqui

30 "  Palmares.

31 Sunday.  Took ride to Palmare lake with Marty

April, 1895

[April 1-9 entries are in list form, style duplicated here.]

Apr.1. Had on Mistolar rodeo, cattle fat.-

 " 2.  "   "  Salado rodeo, and left in after noon for San Cristobal & got as far as Muelle.– Alfredo, Marty, & Mariano; black tropilla & pack mule.–

Apr. 3 To San Cristobal.

 "  4. Saw Gillingham about contract, agree to pay rent, & wait about land.-
Marty left in train.

 "  5. Came back as far as Muelle, met Robson & Weinberg.

 "  6. Came to Palmares.–

 "  7. Elia arrived with Mares from Yacare.– Had Patricio with own horses
& another peon.  [inserted above:] began marking colt & cerdearing mares.

8.– Began marking colts & serdearing mares.  [inserted above:] 75 marked.

9 – 9. Miguel left with Pinto & Mariano with the mares 279 for Potrero Aguara San Cristobal

Left in potrero — 11 potros 3 por 4 –
        4 potrancas to tame
  309     14 yeguas viejos 1 potril
   75    1 padrillo pangare viejo.–

— April 10/95 —

Very hot day.
Elias, J.Hijinio & Eduarte were over at Antonio Michelos to revisar before they marked.  Domingo and Pilar brought wood for marcacion.  Gave up the idea of finishing a corral near Mistolar rodeo for marcacion.  16 loads of palms are there.  Fixing marcos for tronqueros.
Seca.  Gave Feliz orders to repuntar cattle to Salado.– Horses are thin on account of savandija.  plenty of mosquitos nights still.– Juan the paisano moves rancho to end of fence in laguna [the field] on account of cattle beginning to go outside.

— 11 Apr. —

Worked hard all day making marcos for corral gates.  Domingo and Pilar brought two loads of fire wood for marcacion.
Hot day and looks stormy.
This evening Mr Price, Hughes & two other chaps turned up looking for camp to rent.

— 12 Apr. —

Good Friday.  Miguel came back from Potrero Aguara; had entregared to Vargas 276 yeguaizo abajo marco.  Had left 3 on other side of Salado.  Had nice rain this forenoon.  Cleared up afterwards.
Velorio (Elias) at puesto Paso Mistolar.
Alfredo & Price were over at Martin’s.—

— 13 Apr. —

Price & party left for Carmen.—
Peones had— Domingo & Eustacio’s brother bro’t 2 loads of fire wood from other side of Calchaqui.– Fixed up marcos for the two gates of Trascorrals and put them up in afternoon.—
It was a splendid day.–

— April 14 —

Sunday.  Butchered an old cow, and bro’t senueleros from potrero, so as to handle them a bit before marcacion.–
It was a splendid day.– – Just the thing for the camp.—

— 15 Apr. —

Elia Miguel, Alfredo, & Jose Hijinio went over to Frenchmens and parted out, about 25, as Caseros & Ponse were about to mark.  Left one cow and mestizo calf (orechano señalado) button on left leg on other side.  Domingo bro’t load of fire wood from other side.  Also bro’t caballado from Baldomero – preparing to mark on 17th.  Some gente already turned up.—
Fine warm day.— – –

— 16 Apr. —

Finished arreglaring corral for marcacion.  Gente beginning to come together for the work.– Weather looks like if it wants to discomponer.– Butchered a fat cow.–
Casimiro Defagot Gay stops the night.— –

— 17 Apr. —

Began marcacion.  Locked in Palmar 3000 rodeo 3000 head and finished marking by 2 o’clock 696 calves.– Rodeo not very large.– Pretty good lock in.  About 24 outsiders day peones worked.
Weather looks rather threatning.– –
Casimiro Gay and Juan Martin were here.

— 18 Apr. —

Put on Salado rodeo 5000 and locked in with some trouble; more than 100 calvs escaping.  Marked 808 calves & finished by sun down.  Same gente as yesterday xcept Patricio & companion.–
Warm day.
Robson & Weinberg here, also J. Martin help lock in.–
Butchered fat black crespo cow.——

— April 19 —

Warm day north wind.  Foggy morning.  Brought up all Mistolar 6000 & south cattle and locked them in, in 3 trozas.–
Had good lock in, considering very few escaping.  Finished locking in by 2 oclock and by sundown marked 493 calves.  Gente worked very well.–
Butchered 2 cows.–
Robson left.  Weinberg here. & Casimiro Gay.

— 20 Apr. —

Wind changed to south at Xxxxx day break and got quite cold & stormish but luckily no rain.  Finished marking the cattle locked in corral by 2 oclock 1209 calves.  Which finished he work with outside gente– Making iinkstainked so far.  Had left about 4xxx of the best bull calves, entire and in addition to punta lanza and ear slit downwards [2 ear-marks], made a button on left leg.–

— 21 Apr. —

Sunday.  Finished arreglaring with the gente 31 men – about $360.00 more or less.—
Fine day.  Nothing particular new.  Tremendous lots of cows looking for calves.— –

— 22 Apr. —

Fine warm day.—
Bro’t 2 loads of wood from other side.–
Alfred recorrered as far as Wampita.  Sent 2 peones to Gimenez’ for 7 mares which he had bro’t from Espin camp.–
Miguel went to Media Luna where they are marking.—
J.Martin was here.–
Domingo Ledesma took his wife to Calchaqui & brings out mail tomorrow.

— April 23 —

Very warm day with north wind.
Bro’t load of fire wood from other side.
Butchered an old cow.–
Doing odd jobs on place.–

— 28 Apr. —

[Writing style changes, more slanted, likely author: Alfred.]

Alfredo had gone to Robsons (Muelle) on the 24th.  Two peons & boy had gone to Gomezs potrero to pick maiz.– On the 25th (at Robsons) began to part troop of novillitos, vaquillas & desecho cows for Las Lomas.  On the 26th finished parting the 978 animals and next day Began marked 520 and finished today.  about 1000 Dickinsons cattle very poor lot now.  Found everything all right here.  Casimiro Gay was here today.—

— 29 Apr. —

Miguel went to Calchaqui: takes out guia for hides.– Went over to French marking on other side of Saladoink stainDefagot marked about 150.– Hot day.–

— 30 Apr. —

Elias & J.Hijinio went over again to help Casimiro Gay mark.  Got up cart load of maiz from potrero.– Doña Lisidora here on a paseo.  Nothing going on & very hot.– Eduarte began work again this afternoon.—

May, 1895

[Likely author: Alfred.]

— May 1 —

Cloudy close day, and thundering tonight.  Butchered an old black cow from camp.– Started off two carts for Calchaqui with the hides.  About 120 from here & 25 from puesto.— 141 were sent off
Old Pacheco was here looking for a job at corral making or fencing.

— 4 May —

Alfredo went to Calchaqui on the 2nd and came back tonight.  dispatched the hides to Rosario 141 cow hides & 4 horse hides.— Hall.  Carts bring 1000 kilos torta lino from Reconquista — 6 bags yerba from Rosario.  Drogueria, whlbarrow from S.Fé.  soap, some boards, grindstone etc.  Ordered Marty to pay 880 to Pastorelli a/c in Rosario.–
Had wet cold drizzly weather the last 3 days.  Met Don Agustín Irionda in Calchaqui.  Had just entregared his estancia to Aleman 24000 odd cattle.  Also met General Obligado.  Miguel had just come back from La Camela where he had gone to ask rodeo.– Nothing going on here on a/c of bad weather.– Calchaqui full of suebracho which can’t be exported on a/c of want of wagons.

— 5 May —

Sunday.  Butchered cow.–
Carts arrived from calchaqui.

— 6 May —

[Author: Alfred, slanted hand-writing changes at “Marked 60 calves”.]

Put Mistolar rodeo on and parted out the remaining calves to mark in corral at Puesto.  Heavy fog & bad recojida.  Marked 60 calves.  Don Julian of Wampita came, also Casimiro Gay and Robson.–
Also marked 20 tambera calves of puesto Felix.

— 7 May —

Had on Salado rodeo and marked 19 calves.–
Butchered cow

— 8 May —

[Likely author: Alfred]

Sent Don Juan to Calchaqui $500. for Cappato.–
Had on Palmar rodeo and marked 31 calves.  Also parted out 12 cows yesterday and today for potrero for buchering purposes.–

— 9 May —

Marked in potrero 130 cureros and 27 tamberas.— (5 of Elias.  Making marked so far 3493.  Fine weather.  Peicho came.

— 10 May —

Alfred & Robson recorrered down Calchaqui to select place for Peichos puesto.  Fixed well.

— 11 May —

Martin began marking went up with Robson and gente.– Marked 193.—

— 12 May —

[Author: Alfred, slanted hand-writing]

Finished marking at Puesto Martin’s altogether about 345.–

— 13 May —

Weather changed got windy south east.  Miguel was all day campiando mares which could not be found.  Butchered cow.  Got up last of the maiz from Gomezs (potrero) about 3 cartloads altogether.– Robson left for Muelle.  Could not trade with Pacheco on a/c of ensenada.  Made census out to send to Calchaqui.—
Peicho began making puesto frente [faced by] dos Palmitas.

— 14 May —

Weather north wind.  Ortiz’ began harrowing.  Miguel found the mares all right.  Elias, Eduarte, & J. Hijinio began cutting alfalfa.  Frakes was here for breakfast.— Juan Gomez went to Calchaqui – mail.–

— 15 May —

Repuntaring the puesto cattle to Salado.– Alfredo recorrered other side of Calchaqui in front of Palmar.  Mail came tonight.  Finished cutting alfalfa.  Ortiz harrowing.– Juan Gomez moved to end of fence Palmar Lake.  Warm day.

— 16 May —

Bro’t two loads of nandubay firewood.  Horse fell into well last night.  Ortiz began plowing for alfalfa.  Repuntaring cattle to Salado again.  Hot day looks stormy.—
Juan Martin was here for breakfast.—
Camps getting dry.–.

— 17 May —

Cloudy day and looks like rain.  Butchered black cow from potrero.– Miguel, Elias, Eduarte, Jose Hijinio, & new peon (Pinto) went to La Camila to apartes.  Bro’t in two loads of alfalfa.——

— 18 May —

Had a little shower about day break.  which prevented plowing this forenoon. exe Nothing particular going on.  Fixing up grind stone. .

— 19 May —

Sunday.  Foggy morning beautiful spring day.– .

— 20 May —

[Likely author: Alfred]

Butchered old cow from potrero.– Warm day.  Foggy again.– .

— 21 May —

Warm day.–
Bro’t in load (last) of alfalfa.–
Ortiz plowing.–
House nearly burnt off this afternoon.  South side of roof burnt.  Don’t know how it happened very likely a chispa.—
Miguel and the apartadores came back from La Camila and Media Luna.  Parted animales.
Wenceslao the indian also came from San Martin at last.

— 22 May —

Fine day North wind.
Hauled two loads (200) of tejas from Palmar to reroof house.  Cleaned out well.
Ortiz plowing.–
Sent to puesto to take Tijeras off old galpon to fix this house with.
Porteño chaps at paso Salado trying to pass over their cattle to go up to Martin’s.
Sent Old Juan Gomez to Calchaqui after mail.–

— 23 May —

Another fine day.
Butchered cow (old) from potrero.–
All hands went to paso Salado to help pass over cattle from Porteño chaps 550 head Jose _______ who are going to poblar west of Martin’s.–
Gave lots of trouble, and are very apestado more than 100 have died already.  1 month and 28 days from Laboulaye.  Working on roof of house.  Got load of tijeras from puesto.  Rec’d letter by chasque Antonio Chavarria from Tomas Arce juez in Alejandra asking loan of $300.00 for 1 year without interest.  Gave him an order on Pastorelli for the sum.–

— 24 May —

[Author: Alfred, slanted hand-writing]

Warm weather.
Working on house.–
Gave meat to Porteño chaps.

— 25 May —

Warm weather.
Working on house.–
Butchered cow.–
Porteños hard at work skinning their cattle near paso.  Frakes here.

— 26 May —

[Author: Alfred]

Gomez left potrero.  He goes to Aleman estancia as Capataz.– Sent boy with him to bring back cart.  Martin was here.  Frakes went to Calchaqui.  Alfredo left for Muelle.  Musky day.

— 28 May —

Alfredo came back from Muelle.  Had storm night of 26th but very little rain.  J. Gomez went to Calchaqui for mail and to bring cart out.—
Working on house: finished techaring one room.  Butchered cow (old).

— 29 May —

North wind – Cold morning.
Finished putting on tiles on to roof.–
Frakes passed on way from Calchaqui.
Had bill of sale of hides from Rosario $10.00 pr 10 kilos.  $1289.75 clear

— 30 May —

Finished roof of house and mudded inside a bit.
Sent cart to Retomoso (Martin’s new peon).  to go from paso to Martin’s.–
Splendid weather.

— 31 May —

Fixing up inside of house.  Mudding etc.  Cart came from Calchaqui bringing for us 120 kilos alfa seed, bag trebol seed from Landa, 2 bag biscuits, bag flour, box soap, bits from home etc. rest goes to Martin’s.  Frakes moved to Potrero puesto.—
Warm day.

June, 1895

[Author: Alfred]

— 1 June —

Sowed trebol seed between here and puesto.  Cerdiared the mares from Baldomeros puesto (69) and marked the colts (23) 8m 15h.) [8 male 15 female]
Butchered old cow (potrero).

— 2 June —

Sunday.– Put on rodeo in potrero and parted 15 tambera novillos to tame and palenquiared 4 this afternoon.  Alfred was over at Frake’s Martin’s.  Muggy morning but warm evening.– Elia left with two peones to help Zalazar build corral at his puesto at Paso.

— 3 June —

South wind began to blow, gets cold.– Yoked up 4 of the tambera novillos.  Butchered old cow (potrero).–
Elias horse turned up from puesto paso with recado.
Ortiz harrowing for alfalfa.
Reglared with paisanos to cut 500 palm posts at $500 and 100 palmas @ $1000.–
Sent cart to Calcaqui to get fixed.

— 4 June —

Carts made trip & brought load of palms, and load of postes.–
Frost (3°) this morning.  Fine day, wind changed to N.W.
A. recorrered puestos south.—

— 5 June —

North windy day.–
Palenkiared 4 more novillos, and cut straps for carts.–
Escobar from La Sinnombre came this afternoon and stops night.—

— 6 June —

North windy day, and in evening began raining a bit.  Camps very dry.–
Carts (2) made another trip to Palmar for posts & palmas.– Ortiz harrowing old alfa.– J. Martin was here; says Bellocq goes up to poblar near him in a few days.– Butchered old cow from camp.—

— 7 June —

Dampish sort of day but no rain.– Carts (2) brou’t tablon for carpenter’s bench, & 4 marcos for puesto corral.– Fixing up things etc.——

— 8 June —

Carts bro’t two loads of posts from Palmar.– A. recorrered Palmar, lost the 4 terriers.– Muggy day. 

— 9 June —

Sunday.  Cart came back from being fixed at Calchaqui.  Elia & peon turned up from Zalazars where they had been making corral.  Drizzly buboso [dudoso (doubtful) ?] rain.

— 10 June —

Began planting alfa.  Ortiz harrowing.  3 carts made trip to Palmar.  Tied up some more novillos.  Miguel recorriendo: Not turned up tonight.  Butchered cow.– Muggy day.—

— 11 June —

Finished sowing about more than half of the tablon of alfa 2 bags, and harrowed it nearly all in.  In evening had a good shower of rain.  3 Carts made trip to Palmar.– Miguel turned up from Baldomero’s side; reports cattle giving trouble.  Juan Gomez left for mail Calchaqui.— Warm weather.—

— 12 June —

Carts did not make a trip today.  Cleaned the plants off the guacho patatas to plow them out.  Don José …….. turned up and stops the night.  Warm day & looks like more rain.  Fine weather for camp.— Butchered cow.

— 13 June —

Carts 3 made trip to Palmar.
A. & Don Jose recorrered Palmar.– Plowing out the batata guacho.– Elia made wood with Patricio.–

— June 14 —

Another fine growing day.– Cloudy & showery.– Sowed the last bit of carretilla seed around the place.–
The 3 carts left for brought leña from other side.– Plowed out rest of batatas.– Mail from Calchaqui.— Don Luis left for Plaza Grande.—

— 15 June —

A. recorrered monte other side of Calchaqui.– Butchered cow.  Damp weather.  Carts not working.

— 19 June —

A. came back from Calchaqui, had gone with J. Martin on 16th Rained slowly last 3 days.— roads very wet.
Carts made 1 trip to Palmar and one to puesto rodeo.  Butchered yesterday.
Settled all a/c in Calchaqui.—
Looks like more rain more yet.—
Have abxxxx [about] $700 to my favour at Cappatos and owe no one else anything.– Paid the blacksmith 70.00 he owes me $5.00 and also pd my account at Pilos´ $29.65—

— 20 June —

Whitewashing dormitorio.– Transplanting onions.  Frakes breaking up camp in potrero.  Hauled two loads of palms to future corral south.  Roads bad.  Broke pertigo of two wheeled cart which was hauling espadaña to puesto.  North wind cloudy and looks very bad weather yet.—

— 21 June —

Rained a great deal in night and morning.  Temporalish this afternoon.  Whitewashing Miguels room.  Butchered lame tambera novillo.—

— 22 June —

Cleared up, South wind and very cold.  Camp looks considerably improved.  Bro’t up the broken cart.— Jose Hijinio took his wife & sister (cook) away in cart to Calchaqui.  Thank goodness.–

— 23 June —

Sunday.  Miguel left to recorrer down toward south puesto
1st real hard frost & cold south wind all day.  J. Gomez left for Calchaqui mail & cart.

— 24 June —

Another hard frost.  Wind changed to N.E.  Butchered cow.–
Fixed pertigo of two wheeled cart.– Put door into new carpenter shop.–

— 25 June —

Another hard frost.  North wind.  Miguel came back.  [inserted above next:] 2 carts made trip with palmas.  [end] Marked 14 tambera calves at Baldomeros and 2 colts at same place.  Robson turned up.

— 26 June —

Slight frost Warm day.– 2 carts hauled palmas to puesto.——
Pigeons in alfa doing damage.–

— 27 June —

2 Carts at work hauling to puest south corral.  Took the thin bulls out of potrero and took to Palmar.  Warm day.  Slight frost.–

— 28 June —

Warm pleasant day.
Parted out at French mens (Casimiro) place 31 animals.  Butchered one cow.– 2 carts made trip to south corral.  Juan Gomez turned up with mail.  reports bullocks lost.—

— 29 June —

Transplanting onions.–
J. Gomez left again for Calchaqui, takes telegram for Marty and looks for lost bullocks.– Miguel recorrered up beyond the Calchaqui.  Killed an antbear & tracked a tiger.  Carts hauling Cart from Calchaqui turned up.  Had axle & buche fixed & brought some little necessarys.–

— 30 June —

Hot day N. wind.
Sunday.  Fine warm day, plenty of mosquitos.  Nothing going on.  J. Martin stops night on way to Calchaqui.

1895 - Qtr.3

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July, 1895

[Author: Alfred]

— July 1 —

Wind changed to south.  coldish.– Parted out 13 animals from Lucero rodeo.  3 carts made trip to south corral.  Want to leave for Pajaro Blanco tomorrow but can’t find tropillo of oscuras.  Butchered.

— 9 July —

Had left on the 2nd for Alejandra and came back this evening.  had a very nice time at Hopes and on the evening of the 5th had a fiesta at the school.  Had met Mr Marty in Calchaqui & went together.  Saw the Pajaro Blanco estancia rodeo also the one rodeo loma north side of cañada Chancho.  Has big novillos.  Mr Hope wants to sell 800 novillos @ 8.00 gold parted up to end November.– Of which novillos to be deducted the ones to be traded for the toritos.  Came back by the Carmen & Marguerto.  Ramon arrived yesterday with the 35 toritos left 1 at   .  Gave one ~~~ to man at Monte de los Ejes for looking after them, and there are still 6 at La Paraira, in two places.  Toritos are pretty poor.  Was 7 days on road.  Yesterday and today had hard frost.  Butchered on the 5th.  Dried the leaves of the ombus at last.  Received 500 from Mr Marty.  Not hauling palmas from Palmar.  Bro’t 15 more novillos to break in from potrero.

— July 10 July —

3 carts made a trip & brought leña.  Ortiz working in garden.  Another frost.

— 11 July —

Hard frost.  1 cart went to Baldomero to bring hides, & 1 cart to take paja to puesto Felix.  Butchered cow.

— 12 July —

Another hard frost, and cold day.  Elias & peones making a palm corral in Palmar for oxen.– A. recorring south puestos.–

— 13 July —

Had on rodeo in potrero and parted out 127 animals to camp, as potrero is overstocked.  Another hard frost.  Butchered old cow.

— 14 July —

Sunday.  No frost. Miguel left for Calchaqui to bring maiz.  Carts go tomorrow.  Antonio Moreiro came.– J. Martin was here, & brought his cart, which we send in with ours.

— 15 July —

Sent 43 bullocks & 2 novillos to Palmar with Eulogio to take care of them up there.  The carts 2 of ours 1 of Martin went to Calchaqui to bring out maiz etc.– 43 bullocks to Palmar 12 to Calchaqui 4 plow = 59.  A. Moreiro left.  Ortiz began harrowing maiz stalks together.– N. wind cloudy & cold.––

— 16 July —

[Author: Alfred, slanted hand-writing]

Frost & hard north wind today, warm.– Butchered old cow.– Elias found one of the new bulls dead in Salado.  Doña Juana & Meca were here.  Sent $50.00 to old Juan.– Ortiz harrowing maiz stalks.–

— 17 July —

Elias with Patricio and Juan Gomez left for La Camila to part before they move their cattle away.  A. recorrered monte.– One of the young bullocks died estropeado.

— 18 July —

[Author: Alfred]

Ortiz harrowing & cleaning up maiz stalks.  Robson, Lumsdaine, Doddington, & Verstryne turned up and we had a paseo up to Palmar but mosquitos fearful bad.

— 19 July —

Visitors left again for Molle.  Elias came back from La Camilla, parted 6 calves out & no big animals which seems very strange.– Miguel also came back from Calchaqui, reports having bought 300a [arroba] maiz @ 63 c with bag.– Tropilla of morros lost since 17th.  Camp full of mosquito & hard north wind blowing.

— 20 July —

Butchered cow.  Carts turned up this evening from Calchaqui bringing 3000 K maiz, 1 bag flour, 2 box soap, sugar etc. and also Martin’s things.  Ortiz cleaning chakra of maiz stalks.

— 21 July —

Sunday.  Miguel & Elias recorrered way up in monte.  Cattle go very far on account of mosquitos.–
Another day of hard north wind.–

— 22 July —

Alfredo recorrered as far as Wampita Gimenez.  Miguel recorrered as far North as last Palmar.  Elias also recorrered.  Morros still missing.  First manga of locust passed north ward.  South wind tonight after 6 days N wind.  Cloudy weather.  Cut some orkones at puesto.– Huntaring maiz stalks in chacra.

— 23 July —

Drizzly day and tonight started raining.  Temporalish weather.–
Butchered cow. Noticias that tropilla of redomones & some mares had gone towards Calchaqui.

— 24 July —

Miguel left with his tropilla & Jose Hijinio to campier the missing horses & mares and also to bring out Johnnie if he comes on the 26the.  Alfredo went up to Martin’s & parted out 4 animals.  J. Martin spends the night.– Rained last night and rained again this evening.—

— 25 July —

Cart left for Calchaqui to bring out the 6 bags of maiz from Reconquista & Johnnies things if he turns up.– Rained some last night & is quite warm & cloudy.  Guess will have lots of rain.  Nothing going on.

— 26 July —

Recorrered the 4 south puestos.  Nothing new report.  Cabal’s cattle have all taken to the monte last week during the north winds.– Cloudy cool day.– Butchered cow.  Bro’t 5 orkones from monte.

— 27 July —

Fine spring day.  Miguel came back from Calchaqui.  Found 19 horses & mares near Calchaqui.  Johnnie & Bischoff come on Aug 2. according to telegram.  Marked 2 macho colts 1 hembra.—

— 28 July —

Sunday.  Juan the indio found the fence cut in two places on the 2nd angle from his toldo.  Suppose the morros 6 picaso 1 & Ortiz’s lobuno were taken through by the indians.  Elias recorrered to Laguna del Perro.  Hughes is there.  A cuadrilla of about 12 of our cattle are there.— Peones & Antonio Moreira turned up to make tropa.  Cloudy day, muggy.– Wind turned south after hard north wind all morning.—

— 29 July —

Put on Palmar rodeo about 4000 head, and parted about 100 old and ugly cows to send south.  Afterwards drove cattle to Salado.  Cattle look very well, about dozen small calves.  Antonio Moreiro, capataz Antonio Pinto & comp. Mariano, Eduarte, Rojilio, Patricio, & Agustin worked on their own horses.  Butchered old cow  Sent Juan Gomez to Vera to take out guia.  Juan reported tacks of 5 indians, 2 on horseback & 3 on foot seen by Santos, Barra laguna coming this way.— Sent Juan to track them up Santos Muggy morning but clear afternoon.

— 30 July —

Put on Salado rodeo and parted out 74 old cows.  Same gente as yesterday worked.  Tropa went to puesto.– Troperos butchered a cow at puesto.— Foggy morning but fine day.  N. wind again.–

— 31 July —

Had on Mistolar rodeo and parted out about 125 old cows to completar the troop of 300.  Also 6 black calves to eat on road.  They lock in at Felis tonight.  Paid 2 outside men $1800 for 3 days work.  Fine day.  Slight frost–.  Butchered old cow.–

August, 1895

[Author: Alfred]

— August 1 / 95 —

Dispatched the tropa 300 old cows.  6 calves to eat.  Gave Moreiro $60.00 peones are Moreira (capatz), Pinto, Eduarte, Rojilio, Patricio & Mariano.–
Bro’t two loads if tiles from Palmar 1  .  Sent Julio Benites with cart to Calchaqui.– Splendid day.  Don Juan Gomez came last night from Vera with guia which cost 1.00 gastos $9.50.

— August 2 —

J. Gomez left with two horses to bring out Johnnie & Bischoff.  It was a hot stormy looking day.– Began working on corridor back of house.–

— 3 Aug. —

Juntared horses in camp.– Awaited J. & Bischoff who did not turn up.  Harder, A. Harteneck & C. Rohr turned up & stop the night. rather knocked up by heat.– Hot day N.E. wind.

— 4 Aug. —

Sunday.  Visitors left, lent them tropilla oscuras to go back with.  Tratared with Messrs Harder & Harteneck for camp twixt Calchaqui & Wampita 5 yrs. @ $2000 for 3 leagues per yr.—
Will let them know by tomorrow.—
Johnnie & Bischoff came this morning, for their annual hunt, bro’t tent along etc.– Miguel went down to La Camilla to see about the cattle which are being moved away.  Warm pleasant day.– –

— 5 Aug. —

Getting ready to go outside tomorrow.  Hot day & looks rainy again.

— 18 Aug. —

[This hunt took place amongst the lagunas and esteros north of Los Palmares , west & north-west of the town of Vera — see map ]

Came back yesterday noon from outside.  party was Johnnie, Bischoff, Alfredo, & Elias, Ewaldino, Juan, Jose Hijinio & Juan Antonio.  Slept 1st night Estero Las Tejas, 2nd & 3rd old camping ground North of Laguna del Perro, near road to Chilcas, 4 & 5th head waters of Sarnocita, 6 & 7 near confluence of Sarnocita & Golondrina in monte.  8th south of east picado from Cueva del Tigre in monte, 9 & 10 & 11 Estero Las Tejas.  12th home.  Bag; 1 gran bestia, 3 gato onza, 2 gama, 2 aguara, 1 cierbo, 6 chancho negro, 1 chancho corbato, 5 jabali, 1 gato morra, 5 guazu guiras, 1 cuati, 1 leon, 3 aguaracitos vivos [baby aguara caught live], 1 blue eagle. 2 indian horses (1 mare).–
Saw any amount of indian tracks, & Morrells cattle & tracks.  Indians stole at Laguna del Perro on the 4th. Had rain on the 8th but not much water outside.  Miguel parted at La Camila where they have taken their cattle away.—
No mosquitos & fine weather, but want rain to bring water for cattle.—
Robson, Lamsdaine, & Verschrym also camped at Estero Las Tejas with us for two days.

— 19 Aug. —

South wind again.  Immense manga of locusts passed north wards.  Sent cart to Calchaqui with skins etc.  Visited Frakes & Martin`s this afternoon.  Miguel went to sleep at Baldomeros to recorrer monte tomorrow.– Driving cattle to Salado for water.—

— 24 Aug. —

Came back from Calchaqui at noon.  Had gone in with Johnnie & Bischoff on the 20th Also went to Espin to see Livingston about posts & went to Vera and Stevens saw mills.–
Rumours of Revolution & indian alarms up north.  Nothing new on here.  The corredor back of house finished.  Weather fine had nice rain on 19thnight.–

— 25 Aug. —

Sunday.  Parted out Elias cattle from potrero & take them to Felix puesto — about 37 head.  Warm day & looks rainy.

— 26 Aug. —

Parted out at Lucero. 3 animals.  Very strong cold south wind.  Butchered cow.—

— 27 Aug. —

Miguel, Elias, Checho, Julian, J. Gomez & Wenceslado left to part at Medio Luna.  A slight frost this morning but N.E. wind again & warmish.

— 28 Aug. —

Nothing going.  East wind.  J. Hijinio came back from Malabrigo.

— 29 Aug. —

Ox died. (young).  Apartadores came back from Media Luna – parted out about 147 and did not finish.  No one there to give them rodeo.–

— 31 Aug. —

Alfredo went to Calchaqui, & Estación Espin yesterday. & came back tonight.  Sent contract for Guampita camp to Buenos Ayres to be signed by Harteneck & Cia.  Bo’t two car loads of posts from Livingston about 380 @ 1.00 to be sent to Las Rosas as freight is $99.90 for car load.– Gave an order on Marty for the amount.  Met Bower, Livingstons, & _____.  Stormy weather, Santa Rosa but no rain.  Butchered yesterday.—

September, 1895

[Author: Alfred]

— Sep 1 —

Sunday.– Beastly cold cloudy day and looks as if it would rain any moment.

— 2 Sep. —

Butchered cow.–
Put on Palmar rodeo for the neighbors but only Lucero people turned up.—
Marked 29 calves in corral & capared about 22 bulls mostly agenos.  Indians stole the horses at Ewaldinos puesto at Palmar including 3 from the soga there (1 redomon from estancia) about horses Ewaldino & Juan followed up immediately.– Cool nice day.– Tonight late boy from puesto Felix came with noticia that Indians had taken 23 horses from there.

— 3 Sep. —

Gathered horses together to follow indians up but rain came on and rained about 4 hours after breakfast.— Poor old macho stolen too, & mula gateado & 2 other mules from puesto.  Weather permitting Alfred follows up with Casimiro Gay, Elias, Wenceslado, J. Hijinio & Checho, & Ewaldino & Juan if they turn up; from following the indians yesterday.  Tropilla of ruanos left at puesto that is all.

— 4 Sep. —

Left to follow up the indians who had stolen 14 estancia horses & 3 mules from & 5 mares from puesto Felix and 4 & 2 mules estancia horses from Ewaldino puesto besides 8 of his Ewaldinos.  horses & mares rXxo on Sunday Euvalden & 8 39 night 1 September.  Alfred, Casimiro Gay, Elia Ledesma, Jose Hijinio, Wenceslao, Eustacio, Ewaldino & Juan.  Indians it seems had cut fence and cut NNW.  Evaldino & Juan had followed up about 3 leagues north of the Isletas yesterday & had seen the direction they had taken.  Say that 7 indians had gone with the robo.– In all we take 28 horses counting C. Gays 3.  Left home at 8.30 A.M. & at noon encamped at Estero Las Tejas and at night sleep near point of monte south of Cueva del Tigre.  Weather N.E. wind cloudy & threatening but cool.

Alfred's Indian Expedition
September 4 - 27, 1895
To follow Alfred's trail, see map on the north Santa Fé names page.

He went north, past Laguna “Cueva del Tigre”, former Fortín “Las Chilcas” (60 km NW of Vera), former Fortín “Charrua” (15 km. west of “Las Chilcas”), “monte Golondrinas” (west of the train station Golondrinas?, 110 km north of Vera), “laguna loco” (Laguna La Loca, 80 km. north of Vera), Laguna “Palo Pelado” (60 km. north of Vera).
He provides distances in: leagues = 5 km. / 3 miles, and squares / sq = 150 metres / yards .
Page image.

Nightly stops
(Loose note-page in day-book)

Indian Xpedition
1 night… south of Cueva del Tigre
2     Chilcas
3       "
4      Charrua
5     Isleta south of aguada
6     Chañaratas espartillar
7    10 sq from estero 1st tolderías
8    esterito west side of monte
9  N. Costa monte near asgerdha
10 Near tolderia
11 Marching twixt Palmar & montecito
12 Montecito estero
13 Costa monte Golondrina
14  "   "  near Laguna Vivoras
15  "   "   "   " 
16 Isleta Gde North side
17  "  "  South  "
18 Puestito monte S of laguna loco
19 Palo Pelado
20 East of Chilcas – costa
21 Chilcas
22 South of Cueva del Tigre
23 night home.—

— 5 Sep. —

Thursday.– Left camp at 6.15 A.M. and reached Isleta Largo 11.30 a.m.  Morell saw us camped there & thought we were indians, and cleared to the house.
Reached Chilcas at sundown and camped at house.  Morell turned up later in night having followed us up with a peon thinking we were indians.
Morell complains greatly of peste etc. only has 2 peons, but treated us very well.  Weather cloudy & threatening but fine day on whole.

— 6 Sep. —

Friday.  Drizzly forenoon so encamped all day.  Morell treated us very well & butchered cow for our benefit.
Cleaned arms & rested horses.—

— 7 Sep. —

Saturday.  Drizzly morning.  Left Chilcas at 9 A.M. & marched to Charrua where we reached 1.30P.M. about 4 leagues.  Morell went with us about 2 leagues.  2 mule tracks and 1 horse track going southward about 2 leagues west of Chilcas.  Elias & Ewaldino went to see where indians had passed with robo and found where they had encamped about 2 leagues west of Charrua at an estero.  Also found Colorado ~~~ lanced (abajenio).–

— 8 Sep. —

Sunday.  Left camp Charrua at 6.30 a.m. and marched N.N.W. about 3 leagues & struck the track of the robo & then northerly 3 leagues more & then unsaddled close not far from 1st isletas, but no water for horses.  Lost watch near Charrua.  Indians had passed night here at the Isletas.  Marched about 3 leagues in evening until way in dark to an big isleta course N.W.– Camp after leaving Charrua for about 1½ leagues very good & then a tremendous big tacurusal & espartilla until near 1st Isletas & then some good camp, and then another big tacurusal to where we sleep.  No water all day nor tonight.  Slight frost this morning warm day.

— 9 Sep. —

About ½ league N.N.E. from camping found canada with Charco of water, also a poso where indians had passed a day & night with arreo.– Camped there until about 1.30 P.M.  Indians had eaten a lot of bichos there, gama lion, ostrich, fox, peludos, etc.  Marched about 4½ leagues N. bearing a little east in open camp.  After leaving camp, very good camp for about 2 leagues, and then espartilla; encamped for night at some small chanarcitas but no water.  Passed 1 or 2 Isletas.  Before getting to an Isleta about 2 leagues where we had encamped, saw rastrillado of 20 to 30 cows going eastward about 10 days old.  A league further on found 1 tired cow of Moreles mark & 7 tired calves, & thin, evidently left by the indians.  Also saw rastrillado of cattle taken by indians.– No water for night but had bro’t along in water bag.–

— 10 Sep. —

Tuesday.– Marched thru very bad camp & about ½ league of monte ralo — 4½ leagues Norherly course to a rotten water hole (pozo) north end of monte, about 11 A.M. Indians had encamped there with 2 arreo of cattle old & fresh. Indians Also had butchered vaquillona there.– Dismal scene, horses very thirsty, so stopped and pulled out of well, 3 dead ostrich & a scabby fox, & then pulled all the water out for the horses with the aid of the caserola & my rubber sheet.– Had mate & grub.  Tried to take all mud out of well, but it was too much, & water did not seem to come.  N. side of monte which is open camp except an isleta or two in the distance, we found any amount of cattle rastrillado, Indians seems to pass this water hole very frequently.—
Left again at about 4.30 P.M. marched about 1 league N.E. & then suddenly the tracks struck almost west which we followed about 2 more leagues.  Come to the first montes at sun down.  After leaving water hole xxin afternoon, camps got very good especially towards the monte.  One old rastrillado of cattle go N.E. from water hole, & the fresher tracks go with the horse trail.  Sleep again with no water & do not make fire for night.  Slight frost in morning.

— 11 Sep. —

Wednesday.  Close to camp found trail again & about 10 sq where we encamped westward found splendid wal estero with water & the first tolderias, which had evidently been deserted when the robo arrived about on the 5th.  At the estero were the overo ~~~ & cohudito gateado ~~~ and yegua saina ~~~.  Toldos (24) in two or three different places close too.  A cow (Morells) & 3 calves passed the estero (close to which we had unsaddled), and we butchered a calf.  In camp cut thro monte about ¾ league northward and then direct westward about ½ league & encamped for night at another estero.– In rinconado of monte.  Indians had been there in toldos about on the 6th when it had drizzled.  Stand guard tonight.  Camp very good, strips of Quebrachales, but no very tick Quebracho.  Saw different kind of Quebracho with longer leaves & denser.

— 12 – 8 days out. —

Thursday.– Got on track very soon & marched thru monte NNE about a league & in reaching nice open campito about 10 sq broad found a tremendous deserted tolderia about 3 squares, on east side by an esterito on edge of monte.– Deserted about day before yesterday, tired horse there.  Ewaldino thought he heard & saw the tracks of an indian clearing in monte so we very hurridly marched on track very hot until noon when we saddled in a sort of puerto [puerta = door] between two big camps but no water.  Marched about 4 leagues this forenoon more or less N.N.E.  At big tolderia indians had butchered 20 cows at one sitting it seemed.  Found a tordilla mare ~~~ killed on road.  Left again camp at about 3 P.M. & marched about 3 leagues on track N.N.E. thru monte to a dry water hole where indians had slept, and then marched about a league due east in magnificent open camp.  strip of monte running E and W, and way in distance can see monte.– Saw tired horse left in Quebrachal by indians & a bu cuna by the dry water hole.– Sleep again without water & make no fire.  Horses getting delgado.  José Hijinio left his mount malacara of rosado tropilla behind tired.–
Getting to a very exciting part of country and lots of tracks about, but it seems the indians had repartired at big tolderia, also at dry water hole.–
Hot day.

— 13 Sep. —

Friday.– About ½ league from where we slept found deserted tolderia in an opening of the strip of monte facing south, with a fine esterito with water.  Indians had left yesterday morning, about 20 toldos.  Some cow bones about.– Camp Elia & Ewaldino left to bombear about 2 p.m. and the rest about 3.30 marching eastward along south side of strip of monte.  After marching about ¾ of a league Elia & Ewal. came back reporting a tolderia about 1½ leagues to eastward in opening of monte.  So we waited until dark in a rinconadito of monte & then marched to about ½ league of tolderia and waited until the attack.  Another hot day.  Fine monte, Lapacho, Guabivi, bottle shaped tree with cotton blossoms etc.–

— Sept 14 / 95.– 10 days out

Sketch image.

Elia & Ewaldino went on foot last night to spy out the tolderia, no fires, but could them talking & laughing & could hear the dogs bark from where we were incamped.  About 3 oclock we saddled up, leaving our spare horses maneared & the cargero saddled and went to get around the tolderia to gather the horses etc. [Sketch, at right] Noon had just got up.  We had got passed the toldos all right & saw the horses when we suddenly saw an indian among them, he asked Ewaldino who were, and not receiving an answer cleared a garhorse back, giving 3 hoots we immediately chased and shot him as he was getting into monte on foot.  We immediately gathered all the horses we could see and charged down towards the toderia full speed; right in front of the toldos there was a rodeo of about 50 head of cattle which we drove out with the horses.  When we got right in front of the toldos they fired about 10 shots at us.– This was before day break.  We left the cows when we got some distance from the toldos & hurried the horses (19) towards ours & huntared them all right.  Elia, Alfred, Casimiro & Juan then went back to the toldos to see whether any cattle left but there were none, they had already come out & marched south ward in open camp.– An indian was driving a band of about 15 horses towards the toldos & the indians fired and yelled at us.– So we went back & went to a water hole about a league to the west in edge Sketch image. of monte to get water in bags and to give horses water before proceeding any further.  Just as we got to the water hole the indians came on us and nearly surrounded us, so we retreated southward to open camp.  When we got about 1000 mts away from monte in tacurusal they came at us full lick with their piercing yells & nearly surrounded us on 3 sides, firing at us, 6 or 8 of them would get off in tacurusal & gatear us within a couple of hundred yards & fire at us.  Seem very good shots.
One of the first shots killed wounded pangare horse & also tostadito Elia was riding, when they would get too close we would retreat.  One indian was wounded in beginning, & was taken off by two companions.– When Elias horse was hit they all got together & then after a bit about 28 of them came at us full lick just like to have hand to hand fight.— When about a square off one who came on ahead was shot which considerably cooled the ardour of the rest whose cartriges also seemed to run short, as they had shot at least 200 shots.– Indians seemed to have clothes & hats like cristianos but all their shouting was done in their own language.– We marched on & the indians stopped behind, the question now was water as the only water was in the monte where the indians were and it was out of the question to go back.  So we continued to march southerly until we got about 5 [overwritten by 4 ??] leagues from the toldos & then doubled to the east crossing the southern part of the Palmar.  The day was very hot and a very strong north wind was blowing.  In afternoon the two horses of J. Hijinio mount were left behind tired, an alasan & oscurita (redomones ~~~ )  Evening came on and we were all suffering considerable from thirst, but on we marched slowing.  About 9 oclock P.M. we struck a low place & dug with our knives, & at a distance of about 4 ft struck water, but very salt but which considerably revived us.  filled the water bag & on we marched again bearing east by a little north.– Juan G had here parted out to find water & did not turn up again.  Elia also got separated and did not turn up again.

— 15 Sep. —

Sunday.  Fearful march all last.night  The salt water we drank gave us fearful diarreheo, and did not quench our thirst & every few minutes had to go the bag.  Towards morning the bag gave out and our thirst was bad; about sun up we sighted a montecito ahead of us but it looked very dry sort of place; not even caraguatas.  To help oter quench the thirst we eat cactus plants, but thank goodness we found an esterito of beautiful water by the side of an old corral de rama in the monte.  Didn’t we drink though!  I had thought sure we would all die of thirst, as Ewaldino thought the coast of monte of the Golondrinas a long way off yet.– Elia nor Juan had not turned up, but at noon Elias horse turned up, & Ewaldino & Eustacio went to look for him.  But at about 3 o‘clock he turned up on foot very bad with thirst.  He had unsaddled on edge of Montecito & turned his tired horse loose.  There were some fires about, and in afternoon reconoitered north side of monte which was only about ¾ of a league long.  Calculated that we had marched about 6 leagues to the eastward from yesterday afternoon.  It was a very hot day.  Juan not turned up yet.– We had been in saddle about 28 hours so were considerably tired.  The toruno carguero behaved very well.  He also was under saddle 28 hours.  Ewaldino seems much afraid the indians would follow us up.  Shot a venado & caught some mulitas & peludos.  The Palmares that we passed & the camp this side simply swarmed with mulitas & peludos.

— 16 Sep. —

Juan turned up this morning early among the horses greatly to our alarm at first as we thought he was an indian.  Thank goodness we are all alive any how.– He had found water in camp.  Reports lots of tiger tracks in this monte.  Great alarm on account of fire seen on our tracks so we immediately saddled up & after filling our water bags marched about a league east in open camp to a small isletita or few trees, an algarraba had mark with nails ~~ .  we suddenly saw a fire close N E from us, so we struck SSE & marched about 2 leagues in open camp or banado to an isleta.  It was drizzly.  After cooking we marched another league in the dark in same direction and struck the costa monte (algarrobal)   Must be the montes of costa Golondrina, as the camp is very low.– No water for horses & we camp in a very poor place.  Horses giving out rapidly.– In morning early it was hot but afterwards tormento came up, & slightly drizzled rest of day.– Ewaldino says isletita with mark ~~ is only about 6 leagues from a station on railroad.

— Sept 17 —

Tuesday.– Marched this morning about 1½ league southerly along monte.  Caught 2 fat horses a blanco & a rosillo which the peons wanted to eat.  Plenty of water & good feed where we unsaddled.  Casimiro shot a macho ciervo which is a good thing as all our bacon and charqui is gone & very little rice left.– Muggy forenoon.  Saddled up again in afternoon late and marched S about ½ league in heavy rain along costa of monte.  Raine continued until about midnight.  A big lake in front of us.  Ewaldno says is called Laguna de las Vivoras.–

— 18 Sep. —

Wednesday.  Camped all day & dried Pilchas, but the gente are in a great hurry to move as afraid indians had followed us up.– Juan & Wenceslao killed big macho ciervo at camp.  About 10 squares from here at point of monte is a big corral de rama, 1 of palo de pico & a small one de rama, & lots of old cattle tracks.– Ewandino shot guasuncho.  Report the place teeming with ciervo.– Weather not settled yet.

— 19 Sep. —

Marched southerly about 1¼ leagues to the N.W side of Isleta grande.  Bañada fearful heavy to march in.– Nearly all the horses getting tired.– Camped here for rest of day.  Shot Crossed a trail of roba of about 14 horses which was going N.W towards Laguna de las Vivoras.– A killed big ciervo at camp.  In afternoon went out on foot & killed another guasuncho.  Good hunting place.– Must have seen at least 20 ciervo in last 3 days.— Elias shot gama.

— Sept 20 —

Friday.  Marched in two marches along west side of Isleta to extreme southern point.  Camp fearful heavy & full of water.  Fine grass here, where we sleep (bañado)   Weather warm & cloudy & looks like we would have more rain.– Juan found 34 [24 ??] ostrich eggs.

— 21 Sep. —

Marched southerly about a league in morning to Laguna Loco,  Camp fearful heavy.  Horses nearly all sick of stomach ache, guess from green grass, borotilla  Left alasana mare ~~~ and an indian mare behind tired.  Casimiro shot ciervo.  In afternoon marched about a league to point of monte.  Casimiro shot guasuncho.  Can see Palo Pelado next point of monte about 2 leagues off.  Warm close day.–

— 22 Sep. —

Sunday.  Horses are bad from Colic so encamped until about 4 oclock, & cut across to Palo Pelado S.S.W about 2½ leagues.  Camp not so heavy, & seems did not rain so much here.– No water for horses tonight.– Hot day.–

— 23 Sep. —

Marched in morning about a league to where the Calchaqui river seems to begin   In front are some islitas by a lake called Albarez (or Vivoras by some)  Had to leave poor picaso Carrera at Palo Pelado sick of stomach ache,  Other horses coming along very badly.  In afternoon marched along river about 2 leagues to where some big isletas are on east bank
Casimiro shot 8 flamencos & we had a feast in night 2 pucheros!  Juan & Ewaldino did not turn up— it seems they had been chasing baguales.  Hot day & north.  Yerba finished after being on sort allowance for a few days.  Left azulejo of rosado tropilla behind tired.

— 24 Sep. —

Sept 24 – Arrived at Chilcas at 9 A.M.  Found that Morell had also left on expedition after indians on the 12th as the indians on the night of the 7th had stolen about 260 head of cattle.  9 went together and had hoped to catch up with us.– Had good feed & plenty of mate at Chilcas.– In afternoon two potrillos ~~~ saino & mala cara turned up, & after a deal of chasing Ewaldino & Wenceslao corralled them.  Fearful north wind.

— 25 Sep. —

All day at Chilcas resting horses.  J. Hijinio went with peon Don Pedro & brot azulejo left tired closer towards Chilcas.  Peon here reports plenty of rain at Palamres.

— 26 Sep. —

Left Chicas in morning & marched to Laguna Chinapé where we encamped at noon.  About 3½ leagues march.–
Had tormenta last night but very little rain & fine cool morning for marching.– In afternoon marched to about 1 league south of paso Cueva del Tigre & encamped costa monte.

— 27 Sep. —

Reached home at about noon.  Found had rained very heavily here on the 16th& the esteros all full of water.  Indians had been in camp here several times.  Had taken a picaso indiano, and left 3 which had stolen before.– Reached home with 42 horses etc. had left with 28. La 4 of our horses were left behind in the Chaco tired and 2 shot, and azulejo at Chilcas.– Distributed indian horses among companions.– Glad to get home again.– Had received 91 yeguarizas from La California on the 6th. Moreiro bro’t them of them 8 mares leaving 73 horses, also 3 stallions for the manadas.  Troop of cattle old cows arrived at La California 19 days marchxd.  Entregared at La California 282 cows,    hides sold    and    cows left behind.  Sykes & young Watt turned up in afternoon from down south.

1895 - Qtr.4

[Click here to download October-December page images (3 mb PDF file)]

October, 1895

[Author: Alfred]

— Oct 8 —

Tuesday.– Last week had in the 3 rodeos Monday & Tues & Wed & marked all the big orechano calves and capared all the bulls not padres.  Friday & Sat, Miguel & gente parted out at Laguna del Perro and Gimenez an 106 animals.  Report gauchos having stolen 40 head of head of cattle at Laguna del Perro on the 24th  Carts went to Calchaqui on Thursday & returned yesterday, going by way of Gimenez, on a/c of arroyo crecida & bro’t out stores & machine for cutting alfa.  Alfred also went on Thursday and returned yesterday.  Arreg. Repettos a/c (sent for giro) also signed contract of rent of Guampita camp.  From Sept 1.– This morning Elias, Miguel, J. Gomez, Wenceslao, Chicho, Eduarte, Rubio, & Caro Atado went to part at the Barra & Medio Luna.  Watt went to Robson till tomorrow.

— 9 Oct. —

Nothing extra going on.  Bomboma plowing.– Alfred recorrered camp morning and afternoon.  Mrs. Frakes here for tea.  J. Martin here for breakfast.  Watt came back from Mueller.  North East wind fine weather & few mosquitos.  Splendid weather for cattle as all esteros are full.

— 10 Oct. —

Warm day.– Cut the older piece of alfa this afternoon with the machine in about 2 hours. (1st time machined used).—
Gente came back from parting at Media Luna 2 rodeos – parted about 200.  Bro’t back the redomones & potros which came up from down south to redomonear a little.–

— 11 Oct. —

Alfredo went down to Robsons to see Lee.  Butchered.  Riding young horses.– Hot day began little rain in evening.–

— 12 Oct. —

Bro’t in alfa.  Alfredo came back from Mueller.  Got permission to keep on mares at Aguara potrero until later date.  Coldish day.  S E wind, had very little rain last night.  Sykes ill.–

— 13 Oct. —

Sunday.  Miguel left for down home via Calchaqui to bring up young bulls.– Coldish windy day.– Eustacio family went to calchaqui on pasco.–

— 14 Oct. —

Elias, Checho, & Eduarte went with young tropilla ~~~ ~~~ to capar cohudes & juntar the yeguada at Aguara potrero.  Also take two young cohudos down, which came from down south last month.  Alfredo & Watt went as far as Gimenez Wampita & recorrered monte.  Butchered mocho cow

— Oct 15 / 95 —

Casimiro Gay was here for breakfast to see about going on expedition after indians with Morel on 20th.
Began cutting new alfa.  Eustacio & family came back from Calchaqui.  Family from Tostado stop on way to Calchaqui.  Fine cool weather.–

— 16 Oct. —

Finished cutting alfa in morning.  Sent old Juan Gomez, Wenceslado, Eulogia & Santiagueno to part at Belbeq and Martin’s.  Pd Martin a visit this afternoon.  Splendid day.  Weather has been fine lately.—

— 17 Oct. —

Parted 17 animals at Bellocq & afterwards parted about 70 at Martin’s could not finish as it was too hot, but only about 25 novillos are left.– Elias came back from caparing cohudos.  Capared 24 at potrero Aguara, and 1 macho at Baldomeros.  Seems had a row at Vargas and discharged Duarte for f ighting & drunkenness.– Some stallions left yet.  Vargas says 4 mares had died but Larenzo says 8 had died.  1 potrillo had died at Baldomeros (capa).  Butchered fat red cow.– Sent old Juan to Calchaqui (mail)

— 18 Oct. —

18 Checho bro’t redomones which had escaped Elias yesterday.  Sent Elias & Wenceslao to Martin’s as Saavedro the butcher had gone there, but they did not parar rodeo.  Juan Bellocq came to await Casimiro Gay & Co who were going to join Morells expedition but they did not turn up.  Fixing ground for batatas.  Watt went up to Palmar in Monte to hunt with indian or two.  Cloudy weather.—

— 19 Oct. —

Began planting batatas.  Drizzly morning & fresh but no rain.  Nothing going on.–

— 20 Oct. —

Sunday.  Butchered cow in afternoon.– Peicho reports new puesto being formed near costa of Calchaqui.  Fine cool day south wind.–

— 21 Oct. —

2 carts bro’t leña from other side.  Pilar planting & watering batatas.  Eulogio & paisano gathering up rubbish alfa from Chacra.– Alfredo recorrered down Calchaqui to Peicho
Fine day (East wind).  Very slight frost reported.

— 22 Oct. —

Elia & the 3 peones went down to Baldomeros to enlarge the corral some for the mares.– Taking a load of palm posts along.– Sykes went up to join Watt hunting near Estero Tejas.  Finished planting & watering batatas, & hauled off the basura alfa.  Strong north wind & very hot day.– Sent old Juan Gomez to Calchaqui for mail this afternoon.–

— 23 Oct. —

Alfredo recorrered monte north east.–
Felis sent from his puesto 21 cow hides, 1 horse hide & (1 hide of Lucero mark).  Sykes turned up tonight famished, could not find Watt.  It was a very hot day.  The 2 indians juntaring basura alfa.  Pilar cross plowing.–

— 24 Oct. —

Bro’t 11 cow hides, 2 horse hides & 1 of Frakes hides from potrero.– Alfredo recorrered potrero; cattle there slow to pick up, as grass on alturos grows very slowly.– Brigide Cardoso (comisario) and two soldiers from San Cristobal turned up to take Cornelio prisoner as he had opened Aguara fence, also to take Elias dispositión about row among Varga & Lorenzo etc.  Butchered a cow this afternoon.  Pleasant day.  Elia & peones turned up from Baldomeros puesto having finished the corral.

— 25 Oct. —

Cardoso left taking Cornelio prisoner.  Miguel turned up from home, did not bring the bulls as the freight was too high for especial train $176600 or $14.12 per head.  E. Watt also turned up from his hunt from towards Laguna del Perro.  Bro’t two antbear skins, 1 aguara, 3 guasuncho, 1 large pig, small cat, small pigs.  Had good time.  Very hot day.– N. wind.  Miguel reports frost of 21st having done great damage in wheat & lino down south.

— 26 Oct. —

Had on potrero rodeo and parted out about 130 machage & few cerrero [casero ?] vaquillitos & 14 lecheras with small calves.— In afternoon cut the ugly toritos, & marked 113 calves.  Very hot day with strong north wind.–

— 27 Oct. —

Sunday.  Watt & Sykes went to Laguna del Perro to hunt yacaré.  Butchered cow.  Loaded up the hides on cart 102 cow hides 4 horse hides.  Strong north wind and very hot.–

— 28 Oct. —

Cart left for Calcchaqui with hides.– Miguel also went in afternoon.  A. was at Lucero in morning.  Took stray mares down to manadas.  Plowing going on.  Put door on back of house.— Fearful hot north wind.  unsufferable.

— 29 Oct. —

Fine rain came up about madrugado & continued until about noon.  Very good for camp, as grass was beginning to feel the want of water.  Replanted the batatas which were missing.——

— 30 Oct. —

Sykes & Watt came back last night late from Laguna del Perro.  Reported monte full of water.  Another heavy rain in morning & muggy day.  Butchered old black cow.  Novillito struck by lightning.—

— 31 Oct. —

Muggy drizzly sort of day.  Planted saballos, sandias & melons.– Revocared back of house under corredor.  Nothing going on.—

November, 1895

[Author: Alfred]

— Nov 1. / 95. —

Another muggy with very strong south wind, cleared up in evening late, after 4 days dampness.—

— 2 Nov. —

Butchered a black novillo for the hide.  Miguel came back from Calchaqui.  Cart left Calchaqui today.  Hides sold 102 @ $10.00 = 1042 – 3 mare – 12.00 [strange arithmetic]
Cool day south wind, shifting clouds still.  Alfredo recorrered Palmar.— J.E.S. Watt went to Robsons.—

— 3 Nov. —

Sunday.  Watt came back also Robson.  Miguel went down to make the new neighbor Bustamante disocupar the costa of Calchaqui.— Magnificent day.  A. making preparations to go to Alejandra tomorrow to part troop for down south.——
Watt & Sykes go down on 6th

— Nov. 20 / 95 —

Alfredo & Checho came back from Alejandra with black tropilla.  Parted out from Hopes 766 novillos & 3 cows to eat on road.  Perico & 9 peones take down troop.  Gave him $255.00 for road.– 55 gastos troop 82.00 guia, 40.00 puente S.Fé – 50 for 2 peones as far as San Javier.– (Trip)
4th  as far as Calchaqui.
5th "   "  " Carmen
6th "   "  " Alejandra
7           "
8  "   "  " puesto Teodoro
9  parted Rodeo Toba 55 & Teodores 150 & locked in at Estancia
10 parted Rodeo Estancia 300 & rodeo Lomo 75 & slept at Estancia.–
11 parted at Rodeo Rafael 200 & rondared in corral (rodeo)
12 Parted out at Rodeo in front Oconnor 100 & locked in at administración.
13 Tropa left.– Slept at Alejandra
14          " "   "
15          " "   "
16          " "   "
17   Rained   " "   "
18          " " Yacaré
19          " " Calchaqui
20   Home
Splendid novillado & fat.  400 are sold at 8.00 Gold & 366 traded for toritos.  Hoad very heavy rain night of 16th but here it rained very little but still camps are looking very well.– Warm weather now & looks rainy.—
Had on all the rodeos & Gimenez parted out over 100 animals.–

— Nov 21 / 95, —

Heavy rain & hail after midnight & in morning early.  Miguel & 4 men left to part at Media Luna & Vara.  Sent Old Juan to Calchaqui with mail & pack horse to bring out yerba etc.  South wind & pleasant afternoon.  A leaves tomorrow for San Cristobal.–

— 26 Nov. —

Alfredo came back this morning from San Cristobal.  Hopes 8 men (Ramon Avalos) had come to part the toritos in xchange for the novillos we had parted out.  Ramon also came from La California with 100 toritos meztizas and 4 which he had left at Saa Pareira in July last.  Making 104 very nice little toritos which arrive in very good condition.  Weather beastly hot with strong north wind.  Had storm towards evening & good shower of rain.  Arreglared Elias account & he went to Vera to get his papeleto [papeles ?] also guia for troop.  Miguel parted 51 animals from Media Luna and the barra.—

— 27 Nov. —

Had good rain last night and today was cloudy with south wind.  Elia came back from Vera with guia.

— 28 Nov. —

Did not begin parraring rodeo today as it was rather too wet.  Sent cart to Calchaqui for provisions.  Gente all ready for rodeo work.  A. was at Martin’s.–
Miguel & Elia recorrered monte.–

— 29 Nov. —

Parrared Mistolar rodeo today & began parting novillado for down south.  Parted about 510 encluding 4 old bulls by about 1 oclock.  Men on their own horses are Ramon, Manuel, Monsalvo, comp, Patricio, Rogelio, Cornelio & comp, Pinto, Augustin, Caseros & comp, Domingo.  Locked in Estancia corral.  Ramon Avalos & his gente parted out the yearling toritos for Hope, about 115.– Had a slight shower last night which made camp rodeo slippery.

— 30 Nov. —

Had on Salado rodeo and parted out 190 novillos which afterwards by desechando & some got away got to about 670 with yesterdays.  Hopes men also parted about 45 toritos.  Had the novillos on pastoreo this morning and then again after siesta.  Gave some work to leave, out this afternoon and lock in again.–
Warm but pleasant weather.

December, 1895

[Author: Alfred]

— Dec 1 / —

Had on Palmar rodeo which was very large and parted 275 novillos (best we parted yet) & 10 black vaquitas for consumo. on road.  Desechared about 30 small novillos and made the troop 1029 novillos & 10 black reses.– Elias goes as capataz, peons are Ramon, Manuel, Hipolito, Monsalvo, Cornelio, Patricio, Rogelio, Pinto, Agustin, Caseros, Domingo.  $3.00 $1 per ronda 3 peones go as far as Vara 5 days & 2 rondas – 17.00 = $51.00 pd.  Elias also gave Elias 50.00 for xpenses.–
Ramon Avalos also finished parting the bulls for Mr Hope 246 & 3 novillitos for consume.  He goes tomorrow to part at “El Lucero”.– Very warm day but pleasant.– Alfredo also goes south tomorrow on a/c of telegram rec’d from Johnnie.—

[1895 ends here – Alfred returns Feb. 1, 1896]

© Peter Benitz (Benitz Family)